Define search macros in Settings
Search macros are reusable chunks of Search Processing Language (SPL) that you can insert into other searches. Search macros can be any part of a search, such as an eval statement or search term, and do not need to be a complete command. You can also specify whether or not the macro field takes any arguments.
- Learn how to insert search macros into search strings.
- Understand how to design a search macro definition.
- If your search macros require the search writer to provide argument variables, you can design validation expressions that tell you when invalid arguments have been submitted. See Validate search macro arguments.
- Navigate to Settings > Advanced Search > Search macros.
- Click New to create a new search macro.
- Change the Destination App to the app you want to restrict your search macro to if it has defaulted to the wrong app.
- Provide a unique Name for the search macro.
If your search macro includes an argument, indicate this by appending the number of arguments to the name. For example, if your search macro
mymacroincludes two arguments, name it
- In Definition, provide the search string that the macro expands to when you reference it in another search.
- (Optional) Select Use eval-based definition? to indicate that the Definition value is an
- (Optional) Provide Arguments as appropriate for your search macro. This is a comma-delimited string of argument names without repeated elements. Argument names may only contain alphanumeric characters (a-Z, A-Z, 0-9), underscores, and dashes.
- (Optional) Provide a Validation expression that verifies whether the argument values used to invoke the search macro are acceptable. The validation expression is an
evalexpression that evaluates to a boolean or a string.
- (Optional) Provide a Validation error message if you defined a validation expression. This is the message that returns when the argument values that invoke the search macro fail the validation expression.
- Click Save to save your search macro.
Design a search macro definition
The fundamental part of a search macro is its definition, which is the SPL chunk that the macro expands to when you reference it in another search. There are a few things that you should know before you design a search macro definition.
If your search macro definition has variables that must be input by the macro user, put them in the definition as tokens that have dollar signs wrapped around them. For example,
$arg1$ could be the first argument in a search macro definition.
Pipe characters and generating commands in macro definitions
When you use generating commands such as
tstats in searches, you always put them at the start of the search, with a leading pipe character.
However, if you want your search macro to use a generating command, you should remove the leading pipe character from the macro definition, and instead place it at the start of the search string that you are inserting the search macro into, in front of the search macro reference.
For example, say you have a search macro named
mygeneratingmacro that has the following definition:
tstats latest(_time) as latest where index!=filemon by index host source sourcetype
The definition of
mygeneratingmacro begins with the generating command
tstats. Instead of preceding
tstats with a pipe character in the macro definition, you put the pipe character in the search string, ahead of the search macro reference, like this:
Eval expressions in macro definitions
To create macro definitions that are
eval command expressions, select Use eval-based expression?. This setting specifies that the search macro definition is an eval expression that returns a string. This string is what the macro ultimately expands to.
Validate search macro arguments
When you define a search macro that includes arguments that must be entered by the user, you can define a Validation expression that determines whether the arguments supplied by the user are valid or not. You can also define a Validation error message that displays when search macro arguments fail validation.
The validation expression must be an
eval expression that evaluates to a boolean or a string. If the validation expression is boolean, validation succeeds when the validation expression returns "true". If it returns "false" or is null, validation fails.
If the validation expression is not boolean, validation succeeds when the validation expression returns null. If it returns a string, validation fails.
For more information, see the following resources.
Use search macros in searches
Search macro examples
This documentation applies to the following versions of Splunk® Enterprise: 6.3.0, 6.3.1, 6.3.2, 6.3.3, 6.3.4, 6.3.5, 6.3.6, 6.3.7, 6.3.8, 6.3.9, 6.3.10, 6.4.0, 6.4.1, 6.4.2, 6.4.3, 6.4.4, 6.4.5, 6.4.6, 6.5.0, 6.5.1, 6.5.1612 (Splunk Cloud only), 6.5.2