Use the eval command and functions
The eval command enables you to devise arbitrary expressions that use automatically extracted fields to create a new field that takes the value that is the result of the expression's evaluation. The eval command is immensely versatile and useful. But while some eval expressions are relatively simple, they often can be quite complex.
Types of eval expressions
An eval expression is a combination of literals, fields, operators, and functions that represent the value of your destination field. The expression can involve a mathematical operation, a string concatenation, a comparison expression, a boolean expression, or a call to one of the eval functions. Eval expressions require that the field's values are valid for the type of operation.
For example, with the exception of addition, arithmetic operations may not produce valid results if the values are not numerical. For addition, eval can concatenate the two operands if they are both strings. When concatenating values with '.', eval treats both values as strings, regardless of their actual type.
Example 1: Use eval to define a field that is the sum of the areas of two circles, A and B.
... | eval sum_of_areas = pi() * pow(radius_a, 2) + pi() * pow(radius_b, 2)
The area of circle is πr^2, where r is the radius. For circles A and B, the radii are radius_a and radius_b, respectively. This eval expression uses the
pow functions to calculate the area of each circle and then adds them together, and saves the result in a field named,
Example 2: Use eval to define a location field using the city and state fields. For example, if the city=Philadelphia and state=PA, location="Philadelphia, PA".
... | eval location=city.", ".state
This eval expression is a simple string concatenation.
Example 3: Use eval functions to classify where an email came from based on the email address's domain: .com, .net, and .org addresses are considered local, while anything else is considered abroad. (Of course, domains that are not .com/.net/.org are not necessarily from abroad.)
sourcetype="cisco_esa" mailfrom=*| eval accountname=split(mailfrom,"@") | eval from_domain=mvindex(accountname,-1) | eval location=if(match(from_domain, "[^\n\r\s]+\.(com|net|org)"), "local", "abroad") | stats count by location
This example uses generated email data (
sourcetype=cisco_esa). You should be able to run this example on any email data by replacing the
sourcetype=cisco_esa with your data's
sourcetype value and the
mailfrom field with your data's email address field name (for example, it might be
To, From, or Cc).
split() function is used to break up the email address in the
mailfrom field. The
mvindex function defines the
from_domain as the portion of the
mailfrom field after the
match() functions are used: if the
from_domain value ends with a
.com, .net., or .org, the
location field is assigned
from_domain does not match,
location is assigned
eval results are then piped into the
stats command to count the number of results for each
location value and produce the following results table:
Note: This example merely illustrates using the
match() function. If you want to classify your events and quickly search for those events, the better approach is to use event types. Read more about event types in the Knowledge manager manual.
Define calculated fields
If you find that you use a particular eval expression on a regular basis, you can consider defining the field as a calculated field in
props.conf. Doing this means that when you're writing a search, you can cut out the eval expression entirely and reference the field like you would any other extracted field. When you run the search, the fields will be extracted at search time and will be added to the events that include the fields in the eval expressions.
Read more about how to configure this in "Define calculated fields" in the Knowledge Manager Manual.
About evaluating and manipulating fields
Use lookup to add fields from lookup tables
This documentation applies to the following versions of Splunk® Enterprise: 5.0, 5.0.1, 5.0.2, 5.0.3, 5.0.4, 5.0.5, 5.0.6, 5.0.7, 5.0.8, 5.0.9, 5.0.10, 5.0.11, 5.0.12, 5.0.13, 5.0.14, 5.0.15, 5.0.16, 5.0.17, 5.0.18, 6.0, 6.0.1, 6.0.2, 6.0.3, 6.0.4, 6.0.5, 6.0.6, 6.0.7, 6.0.8, 6.0.9, 6.0.10, 6.0.11, 6.0.12, 6.0.13, 6.0.14, 6.0.15, 6.1, 6.1.1, 6.1.2, 6.1.3, 6.1.4, 6.1.5, 6.1.6, 6.1.7, 6.1.8, 6.1.9, 6.1.10, 6.1.11, 6.1.12, 6.1.13, 6.1.14