Configure forwarders with outputs.conf
The outputs.conf file defines how forwarders send data to receivers. You can specify some output configurations at installation time (Windows universal forwarders only) or through Splunk Web (heavy/light forwarders only) or the CLI, but most advanced configuration settings require that you directly edit
outputs.conf. The topics describing various topologies, such as load balancing and data routing, provide detailed examples on configuring
outputs.conf to support those topologies.
outputs.conf is a critical file for configuring forwarders, it specifically addresses the outputs from the forwarder. To specify the inputs to a forwarder, you must separately configure the inputs, as you would for any Splunk Enterprise instance. For details on configuring inputs, see "Add data and configure inputs" in the Getting Data In manual.
Types of outputs.conf files
A single forwarder can have multiple
outputs.conf files (for instance, one located in an apps directory and another in
/system/local). No matter how many
outputs.conf files the forwarder has and where they reside, the forwarder combines all their settings, using the rules of location precedence, as described in "Configuration file precedence". Your installation will contain both default and custom
Splunk Enterprise ships with these default versions of
- On the universal forwarder: The universal forwarder has two default
outputs.conffiles, one in
$SPLUNK_HOME/etc/system/defaultand the other in
$SPLUNK_HOME/etc/apps/SplunkUniversalForwarder/default. The default version in the
SplunkUniversalForwarderapp has precedence over the version under
- On heavy and light forwarders: These have a single default
outputs.conffile, located in
Important: Do not touch default versions of any configuration files, for reasons explained in "About configuration files".
When you configure forwarding behavior, those changes get saved in custom versions of
outputs.conf. There are several ways you can specify forwarding behavior:
- While installing the forwarder (Windows universal forwarder only)
- By running CLI commands
- By using Splunk Web (heavy/light forwarders only)
- By directly editing an
The forwarder automatically creates or edits custom versions of
outputs.conf in response to the first three methods. The locations of those versions vary, depending on the type of forwarder and other factors:
- The universal forwarder. If you use the CLI to make changes to universal forwarder output behavior, it creates or edits a copy of
$SPLUNK_HOME/etc/system/local. However, the Windows installation process writes configuration changes to an
outputs.conffile located in the
MSICreatedapp. For more information on configuring the universal forwarder, look here.
- Heavy and light forwarders. When you enable a heavy/light forwarder through Splunk Web or the CLI, an
outputs.conffile gets created in the directory of the currently running app. For example, if you're working in the search app, the file is created in
$SPLUNK_HOME/etc/apps/search/local/. You can then edit it there.
In addition to any
outputs.conf files that you create and edit indirectly (for example, through the CLI), you can also create or edit an
outputs.conf file directly. It is recommended that you work with just a single copy of the file, which you place in
$SPLUNK_HOME/etc/system/local/. (If a copy of the file already exists in that directory, because of configuration changes made through the CLI, just edit that copy.) For purposes of distribution and management simplicity, you can combine settings from all non-default versions into a single custom
After making changes to
outputs.conf, you must restart the forwarder for the changes to take effect.
For detailed information on
outputs.conf, look here for the spec and examples.
There are two types of output processors: tcpout and syslog. You can configure them at three levels of stanzas:
- Global. At the global level, you specify any attributes that you want to apply globally, as well as certain attributes only configurable at the system-wide level for the output processor. This stanza is optional.
- Target group. A target group defines settings for one or more receiving indexers. There can be multiple target groups per output processor. Most configuration settings can be specified at the target group level.
- Single server. You can specify configuration values for single servers (receivers) within a target group. This stanza type is optional.
Configurations at the more specific level take precedence. For example, if you specify
compressed=true for a target group, the forwarder will send the servers in that target group compressed data, even if
compressed is set to "false" for the global level.
Note: This discussion focuses on the tcpout processor, which uses the
[tcpout] header. For the syslog output processor, see "Forward data to third-party systems" for details.
Here you set any attributes that you want to apply globally. This stanza is not required. However, there are several attributes that you can set only at the global level, including
The global stanza for the tcpout procesor is specified with the
Here's an example of a global tcpout stanza:
[tcpout] defaultGroup=indexer1 indexAndForward=true
This global stanza includes two attribute/value pairs:
- defaultGroup=indexer1 This tells the forwarder to send all data to the "indexer1" target group. See "Default target groups" for more information.
- indexAndForward=true This tells the forwarder to index the data locally, as well as forward the data to receiving indexers in the target groups. If set to "false" (the default), the forwarder just forwards data but does not index it. This attribute is only available for heavy forwarders; universal and light forwarders cannot index data.
Default target groups
To set default groups for automatic forwarding, include the
defaultGroup attribute at the global level, in your
[tcpout] defaultGroup= <target_group1>, <target_group2>, ...
The defaultGroup specifies one or more target groups, defined later in
tcpout:<target_group> stanzas. The forwarder will send all events to the specified groups.
If you do not want to forward data automatically, don't set the
defaultGroup attribute. (Prior to 4.2, you were required to set the
defaultGroup to some value. This is no longer necessary.)
For some examples of using the
defaultGroup attribute, see "Route and filter data".
Target group stanza
The target group identifies a set of receivers. It also specifies how the forwarder sends data to those receivers. You can define multiple target groups.
Here's the basic pattern for the target group stanza:
[tcpout:<target_group>] server=<receiving_server1>, <receiving_server2>, ... <attribute1> = <val1> <attribute2> = <val2> ...
To specify a receiving server in a target group, use the format
<port> is the receiving server's receiving port. For example,
myhost.Splunk.com:9997. You can specify multiple receivers and the forwarder will load balance among them.
See "Define typical deployment topologies", later in this topic, for information on how to use the target group stanza to define several deployment topologies.
You can define a specific configuration for an individual receiving indexer. However, the receiver must also be a member of a target group.
When you define an attribute at the single-server level, it takes precedence over any definition at the target group or global level.
Here is the syntax for defining a single-server stanza:
[tcpout-server://<ipaddress_or_servername>:<port>] <attribute1> = <val1> <attribute2> = <val2> ...
outputs.conf example contains three stanzas for sending tcpout to Splunk Enterprise receivers:
- Global settings. In this example, there is one setting, to specify a defaultGroup.
- Settings for a single target group consisting of two receivers. Here, we are specifying a load-balanced target group consisting of two receivers.
- Settings for one receiver within the target group. In this stanza, you can specify any settings specific to the
[tcpout] defaultGroup=my_indexers [tcpout:my_indexers] server=mysplunk_indexer1:9997, mysplunk_indexer2:9996 [tcpout-server://mysplunk_indexer1:9997]
Define typical deployment topologies
This section shows how you can configure a forwarder to support several typical deployment topologies. See the other topics in the "Forward data" section of this book for information on configuring forwarders for other topologies.
To perform load balancing, specify one target group with multiple receivers. In this example, the target group consists of three receivers:
The forwarder will load balance between the three receivers listed. If one receiver goes down, the forwarder automatically switches to the next one available.
To perform data cloning, specify multiple target groups, each in its own stanza. In data cloning, the forwarder sends copies of all its events to the receivers in two or more target groups. Data cloning usually results in similar, but not necessarily exact, copies of data on the receiving indexers. Here's an example of how you set up data cloning:
[tcpout] defaultGroup=indexer1,indexer2 [tcpout:indexer1] server=10.1.1.197:9997 [tcpout:indexer2] server=10.1.1.200:9997
The forwarder will send duplicate data streams to the servers specified in both the
indexer2 target groups.
Data cloning with load balancing
You can combine load balancing with data cloning. For example:
[tcpout] defaultGroup=cloned_group1,cloned_group2 [tcpout:cloned_group1] server=10.10.10.1:9997, 10.10.10.2:9997, 10.10.10.3:9997 [tcpout:cloned_group2] server=10.1.1.197:9997, 10.1.1.198:9997, 10.1.1.199:9997, 10.1.1.200:9997
The forwarder will send full data streams to both
cloned_group2. The data will be load-balanced within each group, rotating among receivers every 30 seconds (the default frequency).
Note: For syslog and other output types, you must explicitly specify routing as described here: "Route and filter data".
Commonly used attributes
outputs.conf file provides a large number of configuration options that offer considerable control and flexibility in forwarding. Of the attributes available, several are of particular interest:
|defaultGroup||n/a||global stanza||A comma-separated list of one or more target groups. Forwarder sends all events to all specified target groups. Don't set this attribute if you don't want events automatically forwarded to a target group.|
|indexAndForward||false||global stanza||If set to "true", the forwarder will index all data locally, in addition to forwarding the data to a receiving indexer.
Important: This attribute is only available for heavy forwarders. A universal forwarder cannot index locally.
|server||n/a||target group stanza|| Required. Specifies the server(s) that will function as receivers for the forwarder. This must be set to a value using the format |
|disabled||false||any stanza level||Specifies whether the stanza is disabled. If set to "true", it is equivalent to the stanza not being there.|
|sendCookedData||true||global or target group stanza||Specifies whether data is cooked before forwarding.|
|compressed||false||global or target group stanza||Specifies whether the forwarder sends compressed data.|
|ssl....||n/a||any stanza level||Set of attributes for configuring SSL. See "About securing data from forwarders" in the Securing Splunk Enterprise manual for information on how to use these attributes.|
|useACK||false||global or target group stanza||Specifies whether the forwarder waits for indexer acknowledgment confirming that the data has been written to the file system. See "Protect against loss of in-flight data".|
|dnsResolutionInterval||300||global or target group stanza||Specifies base time interval in seconds at which indexer DNS names will be resolved to IP address. See "DNS resolution interval".|
outputs.conf.spec file, which you can find here, along with several examples, provides details for these and all other configuration options. In addition, most of these settings are discussed in topics dealing with specific forwarding scenarios.
Note: In 4.2, the persistent queue capability was much improved. It is now a feature of data inputs and is therefore configured in inputs.conf. It is not related in any way to the previous, deprecated persistent queue capability, which was configured through
outputs.conf. See "Use persistent queues to prevent data loss" for details.
DNS resolution interval
dnsResolutionInterval attribute specifies the base time interval (in seconds) at which receiver DNS names will be resolved to IP addresses. This value is used to compute the run-time interval as follows:
run-time interval = dnsResolutionInterval + (number of receivers in server attribute - 1) * 30
The run-time interval is extended by 30 seconds for each additional receiver specified in the
server attribute; that is, for each additional receiver across which the forwarder is load balancing. The
dnsResolutionInterval attribute defaults to 300 seconds.
For example, if you leave the attribute at the default setting of 300 seconds and the forwarder is load-balancing across 20 indexers, DNS resolution will occur every 14 minutes:
(300 + ((20 - 1) * 30)) = 870 seconds = 14 minutes
If you change
dnsResolutionInterval to 600 seconds, and keep the number of load-balanced indexers at 20, DNS resolution will occur every 19.5 minutes:
(600 + ((20 - 1) * 30)) = 1170 seconds = 19.5 minutes
Upgrade the universal forwarder for *nix systems
Protect against loss of in-flight data
This documentation applies to the following versions of Splunk® Enterprise: 6.0, 6.0.1, 6.0.2, 6.0.3, 6.0.4, 6.0.5, 6.0.6, 6.0.7, 6.0.8, 6.0.9, 6.0.10, 6.0.11, 6.0.12, 6.0.13, 6.0.14, 6.0.15, 6.1, 6.1.1, 6.1.2, 6.1.3, 6.1.4, 6.1.5, 6.1.6, 6.1.7, 6.1.8, 6.1.9, 6.1.10, 6.1.11, 6.1.12, 6.1.13, 6.1.14, 6.2.0, 6.2.1, 6.2.2, 6.2.3, 6.2.4, 6.2.5, 6.2.6, 6.2.7, 6.2.8, 6.2.9, 6.2.10, 6.2.11, 6.2.12, 6.2.13, 6.2.14, 6.2.15