Use time modifiers to customize the time range of a search or change the format of the timestamps in the search results.
_time and _indextime fields
When an event is processed by Splunk software, its timestamp is saved as the default field
_time. This timestamp, which is the time when the event occurred, is saved in UNIX time notation. Searching with relative time modifiers,
latest, finds every event with a timestamp beginning, ending, or between the specified timestamps.
For example, when you search for
earliest=-4h, the search finds every event with a
_time value in the last four hours.
You also have the option of searching for events based on when they were indexed. The UNIX time is saved in the
_indextime field. Similar to
latest for the
_time field, you can use the relative time modifiers
_index_latest to search for events based on
_indextime. For example, if you wanted to search for events indexed in the previous hour, use:
Note: When using index-time based modifiers such as
index_latest, your search must also have an event-time window which will retrieve the events. In other words, chunks of events might be ruled out based on the non index-time window as well as the index-time window. To be certain of retrieving every event based on index-time, you must run your search using All Time.
List of time modifiers
latest modifiers to specify custom and relative time ranges. You can specify an exact time such as
earliest="10/5/2016:20:00:00", or a relative time such as
When specifying relative time, you can use the
now() modifier to refer to the current time.
||Specify the earliest _time for the time range of your search.|
||Specify the earliest _indextime for the time range of your search.|
||Specify the latest _indextime for the time range of your search.|
||Specify the latest time for the _time range of your search.|
||Refers to the current time. If set to earliest, now() is the start of the search.|
||In real-time searches, time() is the current machine time.|
For more information about customizing your search window, see Specify real-time time range windows in your search in the Search Manual.
How to specify relative time modifiers
You can define the relative time in your search with a string of characters that indicate time amount (integer and unit).
The syntax for using time modifiers is
The steps to specify a relative time modifier are:
- Indicate the time offset from the current time.
- Define the time amount, which is a number and a unit.
Indicate the time offset
Begin your string with a plus (+) or minus (-) to indicate the offset from the current time.
Define the time amount
Define your time amount with a number and a unit. The supported time units are:
- second: s, sec, secs, second, seconds
- minute: m, min, minute, minutes
- hour: h, hr, hrs, hour, hours
- day: d, day, days
- week: w, week, weeks
- month: mon, month, months
- quarter: q, qtr, qtrs, quarter, quarters
- year: y, yr, yrs, year, years
For example, to start your search an hour ago, use either of the following time modifiers.
When specifying single time amounts, the number one is implied. An 's' is the same as '1s', 'm' is the same as '1m', 'h' is the same as '1h', and so forth.
1. Search the events from the last 7 days
2. Search with an exact date as a boundary
With a boundary such as from November 5 at 8 PM to November 12 at 8 PM, use the timeformat
3. Specify multiple time windows
You can specify multiple time windows using the timeformat
%m/%d/%Y:%H:%M:%S. For example to find events from 5-6 PM or 7-8 PM on specific dates, use the following syntax.
(earliest=“1/22/2018:17:00:00" latest="1/22/2018:18:00:00") OR (earliest="1/22/2018:19:00:00" latest="1/22/2018:20:00:00")
Other time modifiers
These search time modifiers are still valid, but might be removed and their function no longer supported in a future release.
||Search events within the last integer number of days.|
||Set an end time for an integer number of days before Now.|
||Set an end time for an integer number of hours before Now.|
||Set an end time for an integer number of minutes before Now.|
||Set an end time for an integer number of months before Now.|
||Search for events before the specified time (exclusive of the specified time). Use timeformat to specify how the timestamp is formatted.|
||Search for events before the specific UNIX time.|
||Search events within the last integer number of hours.|
||Search events within the last integer number of minutes.|
||Search events within the last integer number of months.|
||Search within a specified range of days, expressed as an integer.|
||Search within a specified range of hours, expressed as an integer.|
||Search within a specified range of minutes, expressed as an integer.|
||Search within a specified range of months, expressed as an integer.|
||Search the specified number of days before the present time.|
||Search the specified number of hours before the present time.|
||Search the specified number of minutes before the present time.|
||Search the specified number of months before the present time.|
||Search from the specified date and time to the present, inclusive of the specified time.|
||Search for events starting from the specific UNIX time.|
||Set the timeformat for the starttime and endtime modifiers. By default: |
Date and time format variables
This documentation applies to the following versions of Splunk® Enterprise: 6.5.7