stats
Description
Calculates aggregate statistics, such as average, count, and sum, over the results set. This is similar to SQL aggregation.
If the stats
command is used without a BY
clause, only one row is returned, which is the aggregation over the entire incoming result set. If a BY
clause is used, one row is returned for each distinct value specified in the BY
clause.
The stats
command can be used for several SQLlike operations. If you are familiar with SQL but new to SPL, see Splunk SPL for SQL users.
Difference between stats and eval commands
The stats
command calculates statistics based on fields in your events. The eval
command creates new fields in your events by using existing fields and an arbitrary expression.
Syntax
Simple:
stats (statsfunction(field) [AS field])... [BY fieldlist]
Complete:
Required syntax is in bold.
  stats
 [partitions=<num>]
 [allnum=<bool>]
 [delim=<string>]
 ( <statsaggterm>...  <sparklineaggterm>... )
 [<byclause>]
 [<dedup_splitvals>]
Required arguments
 statsaggterm
 Syntax: <statsfunc>(<evaledfield>  <wcfield>) [AS <wcfield>]
 Description: A statistical aggregation function. See Stats function options. The function can be applied to an eval expression, or to a field or set of fields. Use the AS clause to place the result into a new field with a name that you specify. You can use wild card characters in field names. For more information on eval expressions, see Types of eval expressions in the Search Manual.
 sparklineaggterm
 Syntax: <sparklineagg> [AS <wcfield>]
 Description: A sparkline aggregation function. Use the AS clause to place the result into a new field with a name that you specify. You can use wild card characters in the field name.
Optional arguments
 allnum
 Syntax: allnum=<bool>
 Description: If true, computes numerical statistics on each field if and only if all of the values of that field are numerical.
 Default: false
 byclause
 Syntax: BY <fieldlist>
 Description: The name of one or more fields to group by. You cannot use a wildcard character to specify multiple fields with similar names. You must specify each field separately. The
BY
clause returns one row for each distinct value in theBY
clause fields. If noBY
clause is specified, thestats
command returns only one row, which is the aggregation over the entire incoming result set.
 dedup_splitvals
 Syntax: dedup_splitvals=<boolean>
 Description: Specifies whether to remove duplicate values in multivalued
BY
clause fields.  Default: false
 delim
 Syntax: delim=<string>
 Description: Specifies how the values in the list() or values() aggregation are delimited.
 Default: a single space
 partitions
 Syntax: partitions=<num>
 Description: If specified, partitions the input data based on the splitby fields for multithreaded reduce. The partitions argument runs the reduce step (in parallel reduce processing) with multiple threads in the same search process on the same machine. Compare that with parallel reduce, using the redistribute command, that runs the reduce step in parallel on multiple machines.
 Default: 1
Stats function options
 statsfunc
 Syntax: The syntax depends on the function that you use. Refer to the table below.
 Description: Statistical and charting functions that you can use with the
stats
command. Each time you invoke thestats
command, you can use one or more functions. However, you can only use oneBY
clause. See Usage.
 The following table lists the supported functions by type of function. Use the links in the table to see descriptions and examples for each function. For an overview about using functions with commands, see Statistical and charting functions.
Type of function Supported functions and syntax Aggregate functions avg()
count()
distinct_count()
estdc()
estdc_error()
exactperc<num>()
max()
median()
min()
mode()
perc<num>()
range()
stdev()
stdevp()
sum()
sumsq()
upperperc<num>()
var()
varp()
Event order functions first()
last()
Multivalue stats and chart functions list()
values()
Time functions earliest()
earliest_time()
latest()
latest_time()
rate()
Sparkline function options
Sparklines are inline charts that appear within table cells in search results to display timebased trends associated with the primary key of each row. Read more about how to "Add sparklines to your search results" in the Search Manual.
 sparklineagg
 Syntax: sparkline (count(<wcfield>), <spanlength>)  sparkline (<sparklinefunc>(<wcfield>), <spanlength>)
 Description: A sparkline specifier, which takes the first argument of a aggregation function on a field and an optional timespan specifier. If no timespan specifier is used, an appropriate timespan is chosen based on the time range of the search. If the sparkline is not scoped to a field, only the count aggregator is permitted. You can use wildcard characters in the field name. See the Usage section.
 sparklinefunc
 Syntax: c()  count()  dc()  mean()  avg()  stdev()  stdevp()  var()  varp()  sum()  sumsq()  min()  max()  range()
 Description: Aggregation function to use to generate sparkline values. Each sparkline value is produced by applying this aggregation to the events that fall into each particular time bin.
Usage
The stats
command is a transforming command. See Command types.
Eval expressions with statistical functions
When you use the stats
command, you must specify either a statistical function or a sparkline function. When you use a statistical function, you can use an eval expression as part of the statistical function. For example:
index=*  stats count(eval(status="404")) AS count_status BY sourcetype
Statistical functions that are not applied to specific fields
With the exception of the count
function, when you pair the stats
command with functions that are not applied to specific fields or eval
expressions that resolve into fields, the search head processes it as if it were applied to a wildcard for all fields. In other words, when you have  stats avg
in a search, it returns results for  stats avg(*)
.
This "implicit wildcard" syntax is officially deprecated, however. Make the wildcard explicit. Write  stats <function>(*)
when you want a function to apply to all possible fields.
Numeric calculations
During calculations, numbers are treated as doubleprecision floatingpoint numbers, subject to all the usual behaviors of floating point numbers. If the calculation results in the floatingpoint special value NaN, it is represented as "nan" in your results. The special values for positive and negative infinity are represented in your results as "inf" and "inf" respectively. Division by zero results in a null field.
There are situations where the results of a calculation contain more digits than can be represented by a floating point number. In those situations precision might be lost on the least significant digits. For an example of how to correct this, see Example 2 of the basic examples for the sigfig(X) function.
Functions and memory usage
Some functions are inherently more expensive, from a memory standpoint, than other functions. For example, the distinct_count
function requires far more memory than the count
function. The values
and list
functions also can consume a lot of memory.
If you are using the distinct_count
function without a splitby field or with a lowcardinality splitby by field, consider replacing the distinct_count
function with the the estdc
function (estimated distinct count). The estdc
function might result in significantly lower memory usage and run times.
Memory and stats search performance
A pair of limits.conf
settings strike a balance between the performance of stats
searches and the amount of memory they use during the search process, in RAM and on disk. If your stats
searches are consistently slow to complete you can adjust these settings to improve their performance, but at the cost of increased searchtime memory usage, which can lead to search failures.
If you use Splunk Cloud Platform, you need to file a Support ticket to change these settings.
For more information, see Memory and stats search performance in the Search Manual.
Event order functions
Using the first
and last
functions when searching based on time does not produce accurate results.
 To locate the first value based on time order, use the
earliest
function, instead of thefirst
function.  To locate the last value based on time order, use the
latest
function, instead of thelast
function.
For example, consider the following search.
index=test sourcetype=testDb
 eventstats first(LastPass) as LastPass, last(_time) as mostRecentTestTime
BY testCaseId
 where startTime==LastPass OR _time==mostRecentTestTime
 stats first(startTime) AS startTime, first(status) AS status,
first(histID) AS currentHistId, last(histID) AS lastPassHistId BY testCaseId
Replace the first
and last
functions when you use the stats
and eventstats
commands for ordering events based on time. The following search shows the function changes.
index=test sourcetype=testDb
 eventstats latest(LastPass) AS LastPass, earliest(_time) AS mostRecentTestTime
BY testCaseId
 where startTime==LastPass OR _time==mostRecentTestTime
 stats latest(startTime) AS startTime, latest(status) AS status,
latest(histID) AS currentHistId, earliest(histID) AS lastPassHistId BY testCaseId
Wildcards in BY clauses
The stats
command does not support wildcard characters in field values in BY clauses.
For example, you cannot specify  stats count BY source*
.
Renaming fields
You cannot rename one field with multiple names. For example if you have field A, you cannot rename A as B, A as C. The following example is not valid.
...  stats first(host) AS site, first(host) AS report
Basic examples
1. Return the average transfer rate for each host
sourcetype=access*  stats avg(kbps) BY host
2. Search the access logs, and return the total number of hits from the top 100 values of "referer_domain"
Search the access logs, and return the total number of hits from the top 100 values of "referer_domain". The "top" command returns a count and percent value for each "referer_domain".
sourcetype=access_combined  top limit=100 referer_domain  stats sum(count) AS total
3. Calculate the average time for each hour for similar fields using wildcard characters
Return the average, for each hour, of any unique field that ends with the string "lay". For example, delay, xdelay, relay, etc.
...  stats avg(*lay) BY date_hour
4. Remove duplicates in the result set and return the total count for the unique results
Remove duplicates of results with the same "host" value and return the total count of the remaining results.
...  stats dc(host)
5. In a multivalue BY field, remove duplicate values
For each unique value of mvfield
, return the average value of field
. Deduplicates the values in the mvfield
.
... stats avg(field) BY mvfield dedup_splitvals=true
Extended examples
1. Compare the difference between using the stats and chart commands
This example uses the sample data from the Search Tutorial but should work with any format of Apache web access log. To try this example on your own Splunk instance, you must download the sample data and follow the instructions to get the tutorial data into Splunk. Use the time range All time when you run the search. 
This search uses the stats
command to count the number of events for a combination of HTTP status code values and host:
sourcetype=access_*  stats count BY status, host
The BY clause returns one row for each distinct value in the BY clause fields. In this search, because two fields are specified in the BY clause, every unique combination of status and host is listed on separate row.
The results appear on the Statistics tab and look something like this:
status  host  count 

200  www1  11835 
200  www2  11186 
200  www3  11261 
400  www1  233 
400  www2  257 
400  www3  211 
403  www2  228 
404  www1  244 
404  www2  209 
If you click the Visualization tab, the status
field forms the Xaxis and the host
and count
fields form the data series. The problem with this chart is that the host values (www1, www2, www3) are strings and cannot be measured in a chart.
Substitute the chart
command for the stats
command in the search.
sourcetype=access_*  chart count BY status, host
With the chart
command, the two fields specified after the BY clause change the appearance of the results on the Statistics tab. The BY clause also makes the results suitable for displaying the results in a chart visualization.
 The first field you specify is referred to as the <rowsplit> field. In the table, the values in this field become the labels for each row. In the chart, this field forms the Xaxis.
 The second field you specify is referred to as the <columnsplit> field. In the table, the values in this field are used as headings for each column. In the chart, this field forms the data series.
The results appear on the Statistics tab and look something like this:
status  www1  www2  www3 

200  11835  11186  11261 
400  233  257  211 
403  0  288  0 
404  244  209  237 
406  258  228  224 
408  267  243  246 
500  225  262  246 
503  324  299  329 
505  242  0  238 
If you click the Visualization tab, the status
field forms the Xaxis, the values in the host
field form the data series, and the Yaxis shows the count
.
2. Use eval expressions to count the different types of requests against each Web server
This example uses the sample data from the Search Tutorial but should work with any format of Apache web access log. To try this example on your own Splunk instance, you must download the sample data and follow the instructions to get the tutorial data into Splunk. Use the time range All time when you run the search. 
Run the following search to use the stats
command to determine the number of different page requests, GET and POST, that occurred for each Web server.
sourcetype=access_*  stats count(eval(method="GET")) AS GET, count(eval(method="POST")) AS POST BY host
This example uses eval
expressions to specify the different field values for the stats
command to count.
 The first clause uses the
count()
function to count the Web access events that contain themethod
field valueGET
. Then, using the AS keyword, the field that represents these results is renamed GET.  The second clause does the same for POST events.
 The counts of both types of events are then separated by the web server, using the BY clause with the
host
field.
The results appear on the Statistics tab and look something like this:
host  GET  POST 

www1  8431  5197 
www2  8097  4815 
www3  8338  4654 
You can substitute the chart
command for the stats
command in this search. You can then click the Visualization tab to see a chart of the results.
3. Calculate a wide range of statistics by a specific field
Count the number of earthquakes that occurred for each magnitude range
This search uses recent earthquake data downloaded from the USGS Earthquakes website. The data is a comma separated ASCII text file that contains magnitude (mag), coordinates (latitude, longitude), region (place), etc., for each earthquake recorded.
You can download a current CSV file from the USGS Earthquake Feeds and upload the file to your Splunk instance. This example uses the All Earthquakes data from the past 30 days. 
Run the following search to calculate the number of earthquakes that occurred in each magnitude range. This data set is comprised of events over a 30day period.
source=all_month.csv  chart count AS "Number of Earthquakes" BY mag span=1  rename mag AS "Magnitude Range"
 This search uses
span=1
to define each of the ranges for the magnitude field,mag
.  The rename command is then used to rename the field to "Magnitude Range".
The results appear on the Statistics tab and look something like this:
Magnitude Range  Number of Earthquakes 

10  18 
01  2088 
12  3005 
23  1026 
34  194 
45  452 
54  109 
67  11 
78  3 
Click the Visualization tab to see the result in a chart.
Calculate aggregate statistics for the magnitudes of earthquakes in an area
Search for earthquakes in and around California. Calculate the number of earthquakes that were recorded. Use statistical functions to calculate the minimum, maximum, range (the difference between the min and max), and average magnitudes of the recent earthquakes. List the values by magnitude type.
source=all_month.csv place=*California*  stats count, max(mag), min(mag), range(mag), avg(mag) BY magType
The results appear on the Statistics tab and look something like this:
magType  count  max(mag)  min(mag)  range(mag)  avg(mag) 

H  123  2.8  0.0  2.8  0.549593 
MbLg  1  0  0  0  0.0000000 
Md  1565  3.2  0.1  3.1  1.056486 
Me  2  2.0  1.6  .04  1.800000 
Ml  1202  4.3  0.4  4.7  1.226622 
Mw  6  4.9  3.0  1.9  3.650000 
ml  10  1.56  0.19  1.37  0.934000 
Find the mean, standard deviation, and variance of the magnitudes of the recent quakes
Search for earthquakes in and around California. Calculate the number of earthquakes that were recorded. Use statistical functions to calculate the mean, standard deviation, and variance of the magnitudes for recent earthquakes. List the values by magnitude type.
source=usgs place=*California*  stats count mean(mag), stdev(mag), var(mag) BY magType
The results appear on the Statistics tab and look something like this:
magType  count  mean(mag)  std(mag)  var(mag) 

H  123  0.549593  0.356985  0.127438 
MbLg  1  0.000000  0.000000  0.000000 
Md  1565  1.056486  0.580042  0.336449 
Me  2  1.800000  0.346410  0.120000 
Ml  1202  1.226622  0.629664  0.396476 
Mw  6  3.650000  0.716240  0.513000 
ml  10  0.934000  0.560401  0.314049 
The mean
values should be exactly the same as the values calculated using avg()
.
4. In a table display items sold by ID, type, and name and calculate the revenue for each product
This example uses the sample dataset from the Search Tutorial and a field lookup to add more information to the event data.
After you configure the field lookup, you can run this search using the time range, All time. 
Create a table that displays the items sold at the Buttercup Games online store by their ID, type, and name. Also, calculate the revenue for each product.
sourcetype=access_* status=200 action=purchase
 stats values(categoryId) AS Type, values(productName) AS "Product Name", sum(price)
AS "Revenue" by productId
 rename productId AS "Product ID"
 eval Revenue="$ ".tostring(Revenue,"commas")
This example uses the values()
function to display the corresponding categoryId
and productName
values for each productId
. Then, it uses the sum()
function to calculate a running total of the values of the price
field.
Also, this example renames the various fields, for better display. For the stats
functions, the renames are done inline with an "AS" clause. The rename
command is used to change the name of the product_id
field, since the syntax does not let you rename a splitby field.
Finally, the results are piped into an eval
expression to reformat the Revenue
field values so that they read as currency, with a dollar sign and commas.
This returns the following table of results:
5. Determine how much email comes from each domain
This example uses sample email data. You should be able to run this search on any email data by replacing the sourcetype=cisco:esa with the sourcetype value and the mailfrom field with email address field name in your data. For example, the email might be To , From , or Cc ).

Find out how much of the email in your organization comes from .com, .net, .org or other top level domains.
The eval
command in this search contains two expressions, separated by a comma.
sourcetype="cisco:esa" mailfrom=*
 eval accountname=split(mailfrom,"@"), from_domain=mvindex(accountname,1)
 stats count(eval(match(from_domain, "[^\n\r\s]+\.com"))) AS ".com",
count(eval(match(from_domain, "[^\n\r\s]+\.net"))) AS ".net",
count(eval(match(from_domain, "[^\n\r\s]+\.org"))) AS ".org",
count(eval(NOT match(from_domain, "[^\n\r\s]+\.(comnetorg)"))) AS "other"
 The first part of this search uses the
eval
command to break up the email address in themailfrom
field. Thefrom_domain
is defined as the portion of themailfrom
field after the@
symbol. The
split()
function is used to break themailfrom
field into a multivalue field calledaccountname
. The first value ofaccountname
is everything before the "@" symbol, and the second value is everything after.  The
mvindex()
function is used to setfrom_domain
to the second value in the multivalue fieldaccountname
.
 The
 The results are then piped into the
stats
command. Thecount()
function is used to count the results of theeval
expression.  The
eval
uses thematch()
function to compare thefrom_domain
to a regular expression that looks for the different suffixes in the domain. If the value offrom_domain
matches the regular expression, thecount
is updated for each suffix,.com
,.net
, and.org
. Other domain suffixes are counted asother
.
The results appear on the Statistics tab and look something like this:
.com  .net  .org  other 

4246  9890  0  3543 
6. Search Web access logs for the total number of hits from the top 10 referring domains
This example uses the sample data from the Search Tutorial but should work with any format of Apache web access log. To try this example on your own Splunk instance, you must download the sample data and follow the instructions to get the tutorial data into Splunk. Use the time range Yesterday when you run the search. 
This example searches the web access logs and return the total number of hits from the top 10 referring domains.
sourcetype=access_*  top limit=10 referer
This search uses the top
command to find the ten most common referer domains, which are values of the referer
field. Some events might use referer_domain
instead of referer
. The top
command returns a count and percent value for each referer
.
You can then use the stats
command to calculate a total for the top 10 referrer accesses.
sourcetype=access_*  top limit=10 referer  stats sum(count) AS total
The sum()
function adds the values in the count
to produce the total number of times the top 10 referrers accessed the web site.
See also
 Functions
 Statistical and charting functions
 Commands
 eventstats
 rare
 sistats
 streamstats
 top
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This documentation applies to the following versions of Splunk^{®} Enterprise: 8.2.0, 8.2.1, 8.2.2
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