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Statistical and charting functions

You can use the statistical and charting functions with the chart, stats, and timechart commands.

Support for related commands

The functions can also be used with related statistical and charting commands. The following table lists the commands supported by the statistical and charting functions and the related command that can also use these functions.

Command Supported related commands
chart
stats
timechart

Functions that you can use to create sparkline charts are noted in the documentation for each function. Sparkline is a function that applies to only the chart and stats commands, and allows you to call other functions. For more information, see Add sparklines to search results in the Search Manual.

How field values are processed

Most of the statistical and charting functions expect the field values to be numbers. All of the values are processed as numbers, and any non-numeric values are ignored.

The following functions process the field values as literal string values, even though the values are numbers.

  • count
  • distinct_count
  • earliest
  • estdc
  • estdc_error
  • first
  • latest
  • last
  • list
  • max
  • min
  • mode
  • values

For example, you use the distinct_count function and the field contains values such as "1", "1.0", and "01". Each value is considered a distinct string value.

The only exceptions are the max and min functions. These functions process values as numbers if possible. For example, the values "1", "1.0", and "01" are processed as the same numeric value.

Supported functions and syntax

There are two ways that you can see information about the supported statistical and charting functions:

Function list by category

The following table is a quick reference of the supported statistical and charting functions, organized by category. This table provides a brief description for each functions. Use the links in the table to learn more about each function and to see examples.

Type of function Supported functions and syntax Description
Aggregate functions avg(X) Returns the average of the values in the field X.
count(X) Returns the number of occurrences where the field that you specify contains any value (is not empty. You can also count the occurrences of a specific value in the field by using the eval command with the count function. For example: count eval(field_name="value").
distinct_count(X) Returns the count of distinct values in the field X.
estdc(X) Returns the estimated count of the distinct values in the field X.
estdc_error(X) Returns the theoretical error of the estimated count of the distinct values in the field X. The error represents a ratio of the absolute_value(estimate_distinct_count - real_distinct_count)/real_distinct_count.
max(X) Returns the maximum value of the field X. If the values of X are non-numeric, the maximum value is found using lexicographical ordering. This function processes field values as numbers if possible, otherwise processes field values as strings.
mean(X) Returns the arithmetic mean of the field X.
median(X) Returns the middle-most value of the field X.
min(X) Returns the minimum value of the field X. If the values of X are non-numeric, the minimum value is found using lexicographical ordering.
mode(X) Returns the most frequent value of the field X.
percentile<X>(Y) Returns the X-th percentile value of the numeric field Y. Valid values of X are integers from 1 to 99.


Additional percentile functions are upperperc<X>(Y) and exactperc<X>(Y).

range(X) Returns the difference between the maximum and minimum values of the field X ONLY IF the values of X are numeric.
stdev(X) Returns the sample standard deviation of the field X.
stdevp(X) Returns the population standard deviation of the field X.
sum(X) Returns the sum of the values of the field X.
sumsq(X) Returns the sum of the squares of the values of the field X.
var(X) Returns the sample variance of the field X.
varp(X) Returns the population variance of the field X.
Event order functions first(X) Returns the first seen value of the field X. In general, the first seen value of the field is the most recent instance of this field, relative to the input order of events into the stats command.
last(X) Returns the last seen value of the field X. In general, the last seen value of the field is the oldest instance of this field relative to the input order of events into the stats command.
Multivalue stats and chart functions list(X) Returns a list of up to 100 values of the field X as a multivalue entry. The order of the values reflects the order of input events.
values(X) Returns the list of all distinct values of the field X as a multivalue entry. The order of the values is lexicographical.
Time functions earliest(X) Returns the chronologically earliest (oldest) seen occurrence of a value of a field X.
earliest_time(X) Returns the UNIX time of the earliest (oldest) occurrence of a value of the field. Used in conjunction with earliest(x), latest(x), and latest_time(x) to calculate the rate of increase for an accumulating counter.
latest(X) Returns the chronologically latest (most recent) seen occurrence of a value of a field X.
latest_time(X) Returns the UNIX time of the latest (most recent) occurrence of a value of the field. Used in conjunction with earliest(x), earliest_time(x), and latest(x) to calculate the rate of increase for an accumulating counter.
per_day(X) Returns the values of field X, or eval expression X, for each day.
per_hour(X) Returns the values of field X, or eval expression X, for each hour.
per_minute(X) Returns the values of field X, or eval expression X, for each minute.
per_second(X) Returns the values of field X, or eval expression X, for each second.
rate(X) Returns the per-second rate change of the value of the field. Represents (latest(X) - earliest(X)) / (latest_time(X) - earliest_time(X)) Requires the earliest(X) and latest(X) values of the field to be numerical, and the earliest_time(X) and latest_time(X) values to be different.
rate_avg(X) Returns the average rates for the time series associated with a specified accumulating counter metric.
rate_sum(X) Returns the summed rates for the time series associated with a specified accumulating counter metric.

Alphabetical list of functions

The following table is a quick reference of the supported statistical and charting functions, organized alphabetically. This table provides a brief description for each function. Use the links in the table to learn more about each function and to see examples.

Supported functions and syntax Description Type of function
avg(X) Returns the average of the values in the field X. Aggregate functions
count(X) Returns the number of occurrences where the field that you specify contains any value (is not empty. You can also count the occurrences of a specific value in the field by using the eval command with the count function. For example: count eval(field_name="value"). Aggregate functions
distinct_count(X) Returns the count of distinct values in the field X. Aggregate functions
earliest(X) Returns the chronologically earliest (oldest) seen occurrence of a value of a field X. Time functions
earliest_time(X) Returns the UNIX time of the earliest (oldest) occurrence of a value of the field. Used in conjunction with earliest(x), latest(x), and latest_time(x) to calculate the rate of increase for an accumulating counter. Time functions
estdc(X) Returns the estimated count of the distinct values in the field X. Aggregate functions
estdc_error(X) Returns the theoretical error of the estimated count of the distinct values in the field X. The error represents a ratio of the absolute_value(estimate_distinct_count - real_distinct_count)/real_distinct_count. Aggregate functions
first(X) Returns the first seen value of the field X. In general, the first seen value of the field is the most recent instance of this field, relative to the input order of events into the stats command. Event order functions
last(X) Returns the last seen value of the field X. In general, the last seen value of the field is the oldest instance of this field relative to the input order of events into the stats command. Event order functions
latest(X) Returns the chronologically latest (most recent) seen occurrence of a value of a field X. Time functions
latest_time(X) Returns the UNIX time of the latest (most recent) occurrence of a value of the field. Used in conjunction with earliest(x), earliest_time(x), and latest(x) to calculate the rate of increase for an accumulating counter. Time functions
list(X) Returns a list of up to 100 values of the field X as a multivalue entry. The order of the values reflects the order of input events. Multivalue stats and chart functions
max(X) Returns the maximum value of the field X. If the values of X are non-numeric, the maximum value is found using lexicographical ordering. This function processes field values as numbers if possible, otherwise processes field values as strings. Aggregate functions
mean(X) Returns the arithmetic mean of the field X. Aggregate functions
median(X) Returns the middle-most value of the field X. Aggregate functions
min(X) Returns the minimum value of the field X. If the values of X are non-numeric, the minimum value is found using lexicographical ordering. Aggregate functions
mode(X) Returns the most frequent value of the field X. Aggregate functions
percentile<X>(Y) Returns the X-th percentile value of the numeric field Y. Valid values of X are integers from 1 to 99.


Additional percentile functions are upperperc<X>(Y) and exactperc<X>(Y).

Aggregate functions
per_day(X) Returns the values of field X, or eval expression X, for each day. Time functions
per_hour(X) Returns the values of field X, or eval expression X, for each hour. Time functions
per_minute(X) Returns the values of field X, or eval expression X, for each minute. Time functions
per_second(X) Returns the values of field X, or eval expression X, for each second. Time functions
range(X) Returns the difference between the maximum and minimum values of the field X ONLY IF the values of X are numeric. Aggregate functions
rate(X) Returns the per-second rate change of the value of the field. Represents (latest(X) - earliest(X)) / (latest_time(X) - earliest_time(X)) Requires the earliest(X) and latest(X) values of the field to be numerical, and the earliest_time(X) and latest_time(X) values to be different. Time functions
rate_avg(X) Returns the average rates for the time series associated with a specified accumulating counter metric. Time functions
rate_sum(X) Returns the summed rates for the time series associated with a specified accumulating counter metric. Time functions
stdev(X) Returns the sample standard deviation of the field X. Aggregate functions
stdevp(X) Returns the population standard deviation of the field X. Aggregate functions
sum(X) Returns the sum of the values of the field X. Aggregate functions
sumsq(X) Returns the sum of the squares of the values of the field X. Aggregate functions
values(X) Returns the list of all distinct values of the field X as a multivalue entry. The order of the values is lexicographical. Multivalue stats and chart functions
var(X) Returns the sample variance of the field X. Aggregate functions
varp(X) Returns the population variance of the field X. Aggregate functions

See also

Commands
chart
geostats
eventstats
stats
streamstats
timechart
Functions
Evaluation functions

Answers

Have questions? Visit Splunk Answers and search for a specific function or command.

Last modified on 30 October, 2020
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This documentation applies to the following versions of Splunk Cloud: 8.0.2003, 8.0.2006, 8.0.2007, 8.1.2008, 8.1.2009


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