Set up authentication with tokens
Authentication tokens, also known as JSON Web Tokens (JWT), are a method for authenticating Splunk platform users into the Splunk platform. Tokens let you provide access to environments without having to provide the standard types of credentials. Instead of providing a username and password, you provide the token. As a Splunk platform user, you can use tokens to make calls to Representational State Transfer (REST) endpoints and use the Splunk CLI on Splunk Enterprise instances. Tokens are credentials, so you must closely guard them, and not share them with anyone who does not explicitly need access to Splunk platform services.
Authentication tokens are different than other types of tokens you can configure in Splunk Enterprise on forwarders and indexers for authenticated communication between those components, or HTTP Event Collector, though their function is similar. For instructions to configure tokens on forwarders and indexers, see Control forwarder access in the Forwarder Manual.
There are two types of authentication tokens:
- Static authentication tokens let you access a Splunk platform instance. You can create, modify, update and delete them in Splunk Web, and they can last indefinitely.
- Ephemeral authentication tokes are like standard tokens, but you cannot create them in Splunk Web, nor can you modify or update them. They also cannot last for more than 6 hours after you create them.
As a Splunk platform administrator, you can control a number of authentication token properties:
- Who owns the token. A token is associated with a username on the instance
- Token audience. A label that indicates the token's purpose
- How long a token lasts
- When its validity begins. It does not have to become valid immediately when you create it
- Whether or not it is enabled, at any time
You can also delete the token if you no longer want the user to have access through the token. If you disable or remove a token, users of that token lose access to the instance unless they have standard credentials such as the username and password.
Supported Splunk deployment types and authentication schemes for tokens
You can create and assign tokens to various user types that can access a Splunk platform instance, based on the type of authentication system that the instance uses. At this time, tokens are supported in the following deployment types and authentication schemes:
Supported deployment types
- Splunk Cloud instances that are version 8.0.2007 or higher
- These instances must use the Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML) authentication scheme
- There is support for the Microsoft Azure and Okta identity providers (IdP) only
- Single instances of Splunk Enterprise, on search heads only
- Splunk Enterprise search head cluster nodes
Unsupported deployment types
- Splunk Cloud instances that do not otherwise fit the "supported deployment types" criteria
- Splunk Enterprise Indexers
- Splunk Enterprise Indexer cluster nodes
- Universal forwarders
Supported authentication schemes
- Single Sign-On (SSO) schemes that use SAML. These schemes must either support Attribute Query Requests (AQR) or provide information through scripted authentication extensions.
- Native authentication, on Splunk Enterprise only.
- Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) authentication, on Splunk Enterprise only.
Unsupported authentication schemes
- Proxy SSO
Prerequisites for activating tokens
Before you activate token authentication in Splunk Cloud, confirm that you have performed the following tasks:
- Configure your Splunk Cloud instance to use the SAML authentication scheme. Currently, Splunk supports using tokens only when Splunk Cloud uses SAML for authentication.
- Configure your Splunk Cloud instance to use a SAML identity provider (IdP) that supports Attribute Query Requests (AQR). Currently, Splunk supports using tokens in Splunk Cloud for the Microsoft Azure and Okta IdPs only. Those IdPs do not support AQR, but do have authentication extensions available. See Configure Splunk Cloud to use SAML for authentication tokens.
Before activating token authentication in Splunk Enterprise, confirm that you have performed the following tasks:
- Enable Transport Layer Security (TLS)/SSL on your Splunk platform instance. See About securing Splunk Enterprise with SSL for details.
- Confirm that you have enabled app key value store (KV Store). By default, KV store is enabled on search heads. See About app key value store in the Admin Manual for more information.
Prerequisites for creating and configuring tokens
Before you create and configure tokens, confirm that you have performed the following tasks:
- Logged in to the Splunk platform as a user that is either an administrator level, such as the sc_admin user on Splunk Cloud, or that holds a role with at least one of the following Splunk platform capabilities:
edit_tokens_settings, which turns token authentication on or off
edit_tokens_all, which lets you create, view, and manage tokens for any user on the instance
edit_tokens_own, which lets you create, view, and manage tokens for yourself
- Completed all of the prerequisites for activating authentication tokens
- Enabled token authentication. See Enable or disable token authentication.
The "list_*" capabilities let you view tokens only
If you have been assigned a role that includes only the following capabilities, you can view tokens, but cannot create them, or enable and disable token authentication:
list_tokens_allcapability lets you see all tokens on the instance.
list_tokens_owncapability lets you see your own tokens.
edit_tokens_* capabilities include the ability to view tokens, as provided by the
How authentication tokens work
When you create a token, the Splunk platform picks an ID for the token. The token ID references the token information, which the platform stores securely in a KV store collection.
When you use tokens, you must provide the token with each request. If you use the Splunk CLI on Splunk Enterprise, you must supply the token as part of the command or use an environment variable that the CLI picks up. If the Splunk platform uses its native authentication scheme, it does not cache authentication details.
When you present a token as part of a REST request or CLI command, the Splunk platform authentication system does the following:
- It checks to see if token authentication is enabled.
- It processes the token that it receives by validating its signature.
- If checks whether or not the token has expired, or if its validity has not yet started.
- If confirms that the token is available and has not been deleted.
- It checks whether or not the token is enabled.
- It confirms that the user that is associated with the token is authorized to use it.
If all checks pass, it authenticates the user and lets the submitted operation complete.
Enable, create, manage, and use tokens
See the following topics in this chapter for additional information on how to work with authentication tokens:
Add a user to a role with Splunk Web
Enable or disable token authentication
This documentation applies to the following versions of Splunk® Enterprise: 8.1.0, 8.1.1, 8.1.2, 8.1.3, 8.1.4, 8.1.5, 8.2.0, 8.2.1