How the Splunk platform handles log file rotation
The Splunk platform recognizes when the operating system rotates a file that it's monitoring and doesn't read the rotated file a second time. For example, if the Splunk platform is monitoring /var/log/messages, it doesn't also read /var/log/messages1.
The monitoring processor picks up a new file and reads the first 256 bytes of the file. The processor then hashes this data into a beginning and ending cyclic redundancy check (CRC), which functions as a fingerprint that represents the file content. The Splunk platform uses this CRC to look up an entry in a database that contains all the beginning CRCs of files that it has seen before. If it finds a match in this database, the lookup returns a few values about the file. The most important values are the seekAddress, which represents the number of bytes into the known file that the Splunk platform already read, and the seekCRC, which is a fingerprint of the data at that location.
Using the results of this lookup, the Splunk platform can categorize the file.
How the Splunk platform categorizes a file
The Splunk platform categorizes a file based on the following outcomes of the CRC check.
The CRC doesn't find a match
If the CRC from the file beginning in the database doesn't have a match, this indicates a new file. The Splunk platform then completes these steps:
- The Splunk platform reads the file data from the start of the file.
- The Splunk platform updates the database with the new CRCs and Seek Addresses as it consumes the file.
The CRC finds a match
If the CRC from the file beginning in the database has a match, the content at the Seek Address location matches the stored CRC for that location in the file, and the file size is larger than the Seek Address that the Splunk platform stored, the file was read by the Splunk platform before but contains new data since it was last read. The Splunk platform then completes these steps:
- The Splunk platform opens the file and goes to the seekAddress within the file, which is the end of the file when the Splunk platform last finished with it.
- The Splunk platform reads the new data from that point.
If the CRC from the file beginning in the database has a match, but the content at the Seek Address location doesn't match the stored CRC at that location in the file, the file results from the following possibilities:
- The Splunk platform read some file with the same initial data, but some of the material that it read was modified in its place.
- The file is a different file that begins with the same content.
Because the database for content tracking is keyed to the beginning CRC, it can't track progress independently for the two different data streams and requires further configuration.
Configuring files with duplicate CRCs
Because the CRC start check runs against only the first 256 bytes of the file by default, non-duplicate files can have duplicate beginning CRCs, particularly if the files have identical headers. To handle such situations, make the following changes:
- Use the
initCrcLengthsetting in the inputs.conf configuration file to increase the number of characters that the CRC uses for its calculation, and make it longer than any static header that might be present in the file at the beginning.
- Use the
crcSaltsetting when you configure the input for the file in the inputs.conf configuration file. If you configure the
<SOURCE>, you ensure that each file has a unique CRC. In this way, the Splunk platform assumes that each path name contains unique content. See Monitor files and directories with inputs.conf for additional information on configuring this setting.
Do not use
crcSalt = <SOURCE> with log files that the operating system routinely rotates, or any other scenario in which log files get renamed or moved to another location that the Splunk platform monitors. Doing so prevents the Splunk platform from recognizing log files across the rotation or rename, which results in the Splunk platform indexing the data more than once.
Include or exclude specific incoming data
Get data from TCP and UDP ports
This documentation applies to the following versions of Splunk Cloud Platform™: 8.2.2202, 8.2.2112, 8.2.2201, 8.2.2203, 9.0.2205, 9.0.2208, 9.0.2209, 9.0.2303, 9.0.2305 (latest FedRAMP release)