Splunk® Cloud Services

SPL2 Search Manual

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Expressions

Expressions are widely used in SPL2. Expressions produce a value and can be composed of literals, functions, fields, parameters, comparisons and other expressions. You can use expressions with the following commands and clauses:

  • With the eval command to calculate or construct new values. For example:

    ...| eval diameter=circumference*3.14

  • In a group by clause to specify a time span that is used for aggregation groups. For example:

    ... GROUP BY span (_time, 3h)

  • With a predicate in the from and where commands to create a filter. For example:

    | FROM orders WHERE availability="in stock" ...

You can combine literals or constants, variables such as fields, navigations or parameters, operators and functions to create expressions that can be used to fabricate new values or predicate expressions.

These expressions are valid in commands that support expressions, with the exception of the search command. The search command has a different set of syntax rules.

Predicate expressions are a unique type of expression. See Predicate expressions.

Types of expressions

The following table describes the type of expressions that you can use with SPL2:

Expression type Description Examples Output
String literal A regular string value. String values must be enclosed in double quotation marks.

You can use string templates in string literal expressions. See String templates in expressions.

"surname"
"C:\\windows"
"C:\\windows\temp"
surname
C:\windows
C:\windows   emp
The \t in the path is interpreted as a tab.
Raw string literal A string value in which the escape character ( \ ) is not processed.


Raw string literals must be preceded by the at symbol ( @ ) and enclosed in double quotation marks.

@"C:\windows"
@"C:\windows\temp"
@"C:\\test"
@"\""
@"\d.t"
C:\windows
C:\windows\temp
C:\\test
"
\d.t
Boolean literal A Boolean value. The only valid Boolean values are true and false.
true
false
true
false
Search literal One or more values that you can specify wherever a predicate expression. An AND operator is implicit between the values. Search literals must be enclosed in backtick characters ( ` ).

See Search literals in expressions.

|FROM main 
WHERE `500 ERROR`
... | stats count(`500`) by host
The output is the same as
|FROM main 
WHERE `500` AND `ERROR`
... search 500 | stats count() by host
Number literal A number value or a numeric expression.
2048
5-4
2048
1
Null literal A null value is the intentional absence of any object value. You can use a null literal to set a field to null, which removes the field.
null
 
Array literal An array of values or multivalue field. Arrays are enclosed in square brackets. You can specify constant values and expressions in array literal expressions.

See Array and object expressions.

[2,4,6,8]
... | eval a=10, value = [[1,2,3], a+2]
[2,4,6,8]
a=10 value=[[1,2,3],12]
Object literal A list of comma-separated values enclosed in curly brackets. A SPL object literal is a convenient way to create JSON objects. To be JSON compatible, internally field names are stored with double quotation marks.

See Array and object expressions.

{day: "mon", temp: 42}
[{type: "cooperative", 'game-name': "Forbidden Island"}, {type: "competitive", 'game-name': "Ticket to Ride"}]
{"day": "mon", "temp": 42}
[{"type": "cooperative", "game-name": "Forbidden Island"}, {"type": "competitive", "game-name": "Ticket to Ride"}]
Field The name of a field in your data.


Field names that begin with anything other than a-z, A-Z, or the underscore ( _ ) character must be enclosed in single quotation marks.

Field names that contain anything other than a-z, A-Z, 0-9, or the underscore ( _ ) character must be enclosed in single quotation marks.

Field names cannot contain square brackets [ ].

You can use field templates in field expressions. See Field templates in expressions.

client_ip
port
'5minutes'
'status-code'
avg(bytes/1024)
...| eval '${city}' = 456
When a field name is included in an expression, the field values are used when the expression is resolved.







The field name bytes is part of this binary expression.

The field template '${city}' is resolved when the eval command is processed.

Assignment Uses the equal sign ( = ) to assign the results of an <expression> to a <field>. If the field exists in the incoming search results, the values in that field are replaced. Otherwise a field is created in the outgoing search results.


The syntax is:
<field>=<expression>

speed=distance/time
'low-category' = lower(categoryId)
speed=65
'low-category' = arcade
Parameter reference A placeholder in a search string. A parameter reference always begins with a $ symbol. A value for that placeholder must be provided when you run the search.
FROM weblogs WHERE status=$status
Function A function call with one or more expressions.


The syntax is:
function_name ( <expression> [, <expression> ]... )

avg(size)
case(status = 200, "OK", status = 404, "Not found", status = 500, "Internal Server Error")
When a function is included in an expression, the results of the function are used when the expression is resolved.
Predicate An expression that returns either TRUE or FALSE. See Predicate expressions for descriptions and examples of valid predicates that you can use.
true
false
Unary An operation with only one argument, primarily used with unary minus to change the sign of its argument. A positive number becomes a negative, and a negative number becomes a positive.


The syntax is: [ + | - ] (ws) <expression>

- discount_amount
- (.20)
discount_amount
.20
Binary An operation with two arguments. A common binary expression is a + b, which is the addition operator ( + ) surrounded by two arguments, or operands.


The syntax is:
<expression> <operator> <expression>


Valid operators are:
addition ( + )
subtraction ( - )
division ( / )
multiplication ( * )
percent ( % )
concatenation ( . )

avg(bytes/1024)
stdev(*delay)
(avg(size)/max(delay)) AS ratio
surname.", "firstname
When a binary operation is included in an expression, the results of the operation are used when the expression is resolved.

See also

Related information
Predicate expressions
Array and object expressions
String templates in expressions
Last modified on 19 October, 2021
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This documentation applies to the following versions of Splunk® Cloud Services: current


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