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Punchcard charts

Punchcards can visualize cyclical trends in your data. The following visualization shows circles representing a metric aggregated over two dimensions, such as hours of the day and days of the week. Using a punchcard, you can see relative values for a metric where the dimensions intersect.

A punchcard chart

Data formatting

To build a punchcard, use any data that contains a timestamp and the metric you are tracking. Use a query that returns data in the correct format.

Query syntax

Use this syntax to generate a punchcard.

... | <stats_function>[(metric_field)] [<stats_function>(color_field)] by <first_dimension> <second_dimension>


Query components

<stats_function>

  • Required
  • Determines circle size.
  • Use this function to aggregate the metric you are tracking.


color_field

  • Optional
  • Determines circle color.
  • Use a stats function to aggregate values in this field.
  • For sequential color mode, values in this field must be numerical.


<first_dimension>

  • Required
  • Represents the first dimension for plotting results.
  • Typically, you can use a time field such as date_hour.


<second_dimension>

  • Required
  • Represents the second dimension for plotting results, usually more granular than the first dimension.
  • Typically, you can use a time field such as date_wday.

Search results

After running the search in Search & Reporting, click the Statistics tab. The results table includes columns representing the metric, color field, and two time dimensions.

Make sure that the results table has columns for required fields in this order.

First Second Third Fourth
first_dimension second_dimension count or other aggregated value color_field (optional)

Generate a punchcard

  1. Select the punchcard chart using the visual editor by clicking the Add Chart button ( The Add Chart button in the editing toolbar. ) in the editing toolbar and either browsing through the available charts, or by using the search option.
  2. Select the chart on your dashboard so that it's highlighted with the blue editing outline.
  3. Set up a new data source by adding a search to the Search with SPL window.
  4. To select an existing data source, close the Configuration panel and reopen it. In the Data Configurations section, click +Setup Primary Data Source and click + Create Ad hoc Search to create a new search from this window. You can also choose a new ID that describes the search better than the default.

Configuration Panel options for punchcard charts

You can use the Configuration panel to configure the following line chart components.

Title

Give your visualization a name. This is also helpful when searching for individual visualizations in the dashboard definitions. This name is not the same as the automatically assigned unique ID.

Description

Give your visualization a description to explain what the user is viewing.

Data Configurations

Choose an existing ad hoc search or create a new one.

Position & Size
You can use your mouse to change the size or location of the visualization, or the Position & Size section of the Configuration panel for pixel perfect sizing and placement.

General

  • Toggle the Pulsate Max Value switch to make the biggest bubble pulse.
  • Show Bubble Labels
    Choose whether to show the value for all bubbles, only the maximum value, or no values.
  • Bubble Row Scale
    • The Global setting scales bubbles Globally, without respect to bubble sizes on other rows.
    • The By Row setting scales bubbles according to the size of bubbles on all of the rows.
  • Bubble Scale
    Choose whether you want to scale the bubbles by their radius or area.

Coloring
Select the Color Mode.

  • Dynamic
    Select a data source value from the Color by Field dropdown to dynamically color by size.
  • Categorical
    Use Legend Display to show a legend for each color category or to turn the legend off.
  • Background
    Choose a background color for your chart. Either select a color from the palette by clicking the color box, or enter a hex code in the field provided. For example, entering #D3D3D3 will give your chart a light gray background.

Drilldown Settings
Click + Add Drilldown to allow a user to click the value of a visualization to link to a custom URL, set tokens, or link to a different dashboard.

Code
Select your visualization or its search to view and edit the source code in real-time. You can also change the Visualization ID to a more readable ID to help identify this visualization in the source code.

Dashboard definition example

The following punchcard shows circles representing a metric aggregated over hours of the day and days of the week.

A punchcard chart with days of the week in the y-axis, hours of the day in the x-axis, and a legend showing that purple represents California, blue represents Washington, green represents Oregon, and orange represents null. Circles of different sizes and colors fill the chart.

Source code

Expand the box to view the complete dashboard definition for the example dashboard. If you do not have the correct look-up file, it will not render in your dashboard.


{
  "visualizations": {
    "viz_user_logins": {
      "type": "splunk.punchcard",
      "options": {
          "colorMode": "categorical"
      },
      "dataSources": {
          "primary": "ds_cSFARHtY"
      }
    }
  },
  "dataSources": {
    "ds_cSFARHtY": {
      "type": "ds.search",
      "options": {
        "query": "| inputlookup examples.csv\n| fields punch_hour punch_day punch_count punch_region"
      },
      "name": "Search_1"
    }
  },
  "defaults": {
    "dataSources": {
      "ds.search": {
        "options": {
          "queryParameters": {
            "latest": "$global_time.latest$",
            "earliest": "$global_time.earliest$"
          }
        }
      }
    }
  },
  "inputs": {
    "input_global_trp": {
      "type": "input.timerange",
      "options": {
        "token": "global_time",
        "defaultValue": "-24h@h,now"
      },
      "title": "Global Time Range"
    }
  },
  "layout": {
    "type": "absolute",
    "options": {
      "display": "auto-scale"
    },
    "structure": [
      {
        "item": "viz_user_logins",
        "type": "block",
        "position": {
          "x": 110,
          "y": 70,
          "w": 860,
          "h": 430
        }
      }
    ],
    "globalInputs": [
      "input_global_trp"
    ]
  },
  "description": "Logins by hour, day, and region.",
  "title": "Daily Logins"
}


Source options for punchcard charts

While some of these options can be set using the visual editor, there are additional options that can only be set in the source editor for splunk.punchcard. These options are added to the options field of the visualization stanza. For example, the following example shows the addition of background color using a hex code and a color mode setting using one of the available settings.

"viz_25NNIqLF": {
  "type": "splunk.punchcard",
  "options": {
    "backgroundColor": "#0000FF",
    "colorMode": "categorical"
  },
  "dataSources": {
    "primary": "ds_gcEN4c7Q"
  }
} 


To read more on how visualization stanzas are structured see: Elements of a visualization. Below are all of the options available.

Punchcard chart options

The following options are available for editing punchcard charts in the source editor:

Property Type Default Description
x (string | number) > primary | seriesByIndex(0) Specify the data source to apply to the x-axis. This property is required.
y (string | number) > primary | seriesByIndex(1) Specify the data source to apply to the y-axis. This property is required.
category (string | number) > primary | seriesByIndex(3) Specify the data source to apply to series categories.
size number > primary | seriesByIndex(2) Specify the data source to apply to bubble size in the chart. This property is required.
xField string > x | getField() Specify the field that maps to the x-axis.
yField string > y | getField() Specify the field that maps to the y-axis.
categoryField string > category | getField() Specify the field that maps to the series categories.
sizeField string > size | getField() Specify the field that maps to the bubble size in the chart.
backgroundColor string > themes.defaultBackgroundColor Specify the hexadecimal code for the chart's background color. For example, "#0000FF" is a shade of blue.
bubbleColor (string | array) > size | gradient(bubbleColorConfig) Specify the coloring method used for the bubbles when the color mode "dynamic" is specified.
bubbleLabelDisplay ("all" | "max" | "off") all Specify whether all bubble labels, the maximum value bubble labels, or none of the bubble labels are displayed.
bubbleRadiusMax number 15 Specify the maximum radius (in pixels) of the bubbles when the showDynamicBubbleSize option is false. The number must be greater than 0.
bubbleRadiusMin number 1 Specify the minimum radius (in pixels) of the bubbles when the showDynamicBubbleSize option is false. The number must be greater than 0.
bubbleRowScale ("global" | "row") global Specify how bubbles are scaled relative to other rows.
bubbleSizeMax number 1 Specify the maximum percentage (in decimal format) of space a bubble takes up within a cell when the showDynamicBubbleSize option is true. The number specified must be between 0 and 1.
bubbleSizeMin number 0.25 Specify the minimum percentage (in decimal format) of space a bubble takes up within a cell when the showDynamicBubbleSize option is true. The number specified must be between 0 and 1.
bubbleSizeMethod ("radius" | "area") area Specify whether bubble area or diameter corresponds to the size value.
colorMode ("categorical" | "dynamic") dynamic Specify the coloring method used for the bubbles.
legendDisplay ("right" | "off") right Specify if the legend on the panel is displayed on the right or turned off.
seriesColors string #7B56DB,#009CEB,#00CDAF,#DD9900,#FF677B,#CB2196,#813193,#0051B5,#008C80,#99B100,#FFA476,#FF6ACE,#AE8CFF,#00689D,#00490A,#465D00,#9D6300,#F6540B,#FF969E,#E47BFE Specify the colors used for a series. You can use a data source or hexadecimal code to apply the color. For example, "#FF0000", "#0000FF", "#008000".
showDefaultSort boolean FALSE Specify whether axes are sorted based on the order of time, digits, and strings.
showDynamicBubbleSize boolean TRUE Specify whether the bubble sizes are dynamic or fixed.
showMaxValuePulsation boolean TRUE Specify whether the maximum value bubble pulsates.
Last modified on 26 July, 2022
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This documentation applies to the following versions of Splunk Cloud Platform: 8.2.2202, 8.2.2203


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