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Conversion functions

The following list contains the functions that you can use to mask IP addresses and convert numbers to strings and strings to numbers.

For information about using string and numeric fields in functions, and nesting functions, see Overview of SPL2 eval functions.

ipmask(<mask>,<IP>)

Description

This function generates a new masked IP address by applying a mask to an IP address through a bitwise AND operation. You can use this function to simplify the isolation of an IPv4 address octet without splitting the IP address.

Usage

The <mask> must be a valid IPv4 address. The <IP> must be a valid IPv4 address or a field name where the field value is a valid IPv4 address.

A valid IPv4 address is a quad-dotted notation of four decimal integers, each ranging from 0 to 255.

For the <mask> argument, you can specify one of the default subnet masks such as 255.255.255.0.

You can use this function with the eval and where commands, in the WHERE clause of the from command, and as part of evaluation expressions with other commands.

Basic examples

The following example shows how to use the ipmask function with the eval command:

... | eval maskedIP = ipmask("255.255.255.0", "10.20.30.120")

The output of this example is 10.20.30.0.


The following example shows how to use the ipmask function in the SELECT clause of the from command:

FROM main SELECT ipmask("0.255.0.244", clientip) AS maskedip

This search masks every IP address in the clientip field and returns the results in an aliased field called maskedip.


The following example shows how to use the ipmask function in the WHERE clause of the from command to filter the events on a specific mask value:

FROM main WHERE ipmask("0.255.0.224", clientip)="10.20.30.120"

In this example, the masked value is 0.20.0.96.

object_to_array(<object>, <key>, <value>)

Converts data that is in an object format into an array format.

Usage

You can use this function with the eval command.

The <object> is the data that is formatted as an object.

The <key> is the label you want to use for the name of the keys in the array of key-value pairs. The <key> must be enclosed in quotation marks.

The <value> is the label you want to use as the name of the values in the array of key-value pairs. The <value> must be enclosed in quotation marks.

To use named arguments, you must specify the argument names before the argument values. For example: 

... object_to_array(object:statePop, key:"state", value:"population" )

Examples

Converting a single object into an array

Consider the following field, called statePop which consists of a set of state names and the population in those states:

{"Washington": 7535591, "California": 39557045, "Oregon": 4190714} 

Use the object_to_array function to create an array from the objects.

... | eval stateData=object_to_array(statePop,"state", "population")

The results look something like this:

Event
stateData: "[{"state":"Washington","population":7535591},{"state":"California","population":39557045},{"state":"Oregon","population":4190714}]"

You can separate the objects in the array by adding the expand command to the search:

... | eval stateData=object_to_array(statePop,"state", "population") | expand stateData

The results look something like this:

Event
stateData: "{"state":"Washington","population":7535591}"
stateData: "{"state":"California","population":39557045}"
stateData: "{"state":"Oregon","population":4190714}"

Converting nested objects into an array

Consider the following field, called employees which consists of information about employees organized by city:

{
  "Berlin": [
    {
      "employeeID": "011",
      "lastName": "Martin", "firstName": "Alex",
      "department": "Sales", "hireDate": "2004-11-15 00:00:00.000"
    },
    {
      "employeeID": "015",
      "lastName": "Garcia", "firstName": "Claudia",
      "department": "Sales", "hireDate": "2001-08-15 00:00:00.000"
    },
    {
      "employeeID": "017",
      "lastName": "Dubois", "firstName": "Maria",
      "department": "Marketing", "hireDate": "2017-03-15 00:00:00.000"
    }
  ],
  "Prague": [
    {
      "employeeID": "023",
      "lastName": "Sullivan", "firstName": "Rutherford",
      "department": "Engineering", "hireDate": "2015-12-15 00:00:00.000"
    },
    {
      "employeeID": "025",
      "lastName": "Patel", "firstName": "Vanya",
      "department": "Sales", "hireDate": "2019-06-15 00:00:00.000"
    }
  ],
  "Dublin": [
    {
      "employeeID": "031",
      "lastName": "Zhang", "firstName": "Wei",
      "department": "Human Resources", "hireDate": "2019-09-15 00:00:00.000"
    },
    {
      "employeeID": "036",
      "lastName": "Mayer", "firstName": "David",
      "department": "Sales", "hireDate": "2018-04-15 00:00:00.000"
    }
  ]
}

Use the object_to_array function to create an array from the nested objects.

FROM employees | eval Dept=object_to_array(employees,"city", "employee_info")

The results look something like this:

Dept
"[{"city":"Berlin","employee_info":[{"employeeID":"011","lastName":"Martin","firstName":"Alex","department":"Sales","hireDate":"2004-11-15 00:00:00.000"},{"employeeID":"015","lastName":"Garcia","firstName":"Claudia","department":"Sales","hireDate":"2001-08-15 00:00:00.000"},{"employeeID":"017","lastName":"Dubois","firstName":"Maria","department":"Marketing","hireDate":"2017-03-15 00:00:00.000"}]},

{"city":"Prague","employee_info":[{"employeeID":"023","lastName":"Sullivan","firstName":"Rutherford","department":"Engineering","hireDate":"2015-12-15 00:00:00.000"},{"employeeID":"025","lastName":"Patel","firstName":"Vanya","department":"Sales","hireDate":"2019-06-15 00:00:00.000"}]},
{"city":"Dublin","employee_info":
[{"employeeID":"031","lastName":"Zhang","firstName":"Wei","department":"Human Resources","hireDate":"2019-09-15 00:00:00.000"},{"employeeID":"036","lastName":"Mayer","firstName":"David","department":"Sales","hireDate":"2018-04-15 00:00:00.000"}]}]"

All of the Information appears on a single row.


Add the expand command to the search to separate out each nested array:

FROM employees | eval Dept=object_to_array(employees,"city", "employee_info") | expand Dept

The results look something like this:

Dept
{"city":"Berlin","employee_info":[{"employeeID":"011","lastName":"Martin","firstName":"Alex","department":"Sales","hireDate":"2004-11-15 00:00:00.000"},{"employeeID":"015","lastName":"Garcia","firstName":"Claudia","department":"Sales","hireDate":"2001-08-15 00:00:00.000"},{"employeeID":"017","lastName":"Dubois","firstName":"Maria","department":"Marketing","hireDate":"2017-03-15 00:00:00.000"}]}
{"city":"Prague","employee_info":[{"employeeID":"023","lastName":"Sullivan","firstName":"Rutherford","department":"Engineering","hireDate":"2015-12-15 00:00:00.000"},{"employeeID":"025","lastName":"Patel","firstName":"Vanya","department":"Sales","hireDate":"2019-06-15 00:00:00.000"}]}
{"city":"Dublin","employee_info":[{"employeeID":"031","lastName":"Zhang","firstName":"Wei","department":"Human Resources","hireDate":"2019-09-15 00:00:00.000"},{"employeeID":"036","lastName":"Mayer","firstName":"David","department":"Sales","hireDate":"2018-04-15 00:00:00.000"}]}

Information for each city appears on a separate row.


Add the flatten command to the search to create fields for the city and employee_info information:

FROM employees | eval Dept=object_to_array(employees,"city", "employee_info") | expand Dept | flatten Dept

The results look something like this:

city employee_info
Berlin [{"employeeID":"011","lastName":"Martin","firstName":"Alex","department":"Sales","hireDate":"2004-11-15 00:00:00.000"},{"employeeID":"015","lastName":"Garcia","firstName":"Claudia","department":"Sales","hireDate":"2001-08-15 00:00:00.000"},{"employeeID":"017","lastName":"Dubois","firstName":"Maria","department":"Marketing","hireDate":"2017-03-15 00:00:00.000"}]
Prague [{"employeeID":"023","lastName":"Sullivan","firstName":"Rutherford","department":"Engineering","hireDate":"2015-12-15 00:00:00.000"},{"employeeID":"025","lastName":"Patel","firstName":"Vanya","department":"Sales","hireDate":"2019-06-15 00:00:00.000"}]
Dublin [{"employeeID":"031","lastName":"Zhang","firstName":"Wei","department":"Human Resources","hireDate":"2019-09-15 00:00:00.000"},{"employeeID":"036","lastName":"Mayer","firstName":"David","department":"Sales","hireDate":"2018-04-15 00:00:00.000"}]


printf(<format>, <arguments>)

This function builds a string value, based on a string format and the values specified.

The SPL2 printf function is similar to the C sprintf() function and similar functions in other languages such as Python, Perl, and Ruby.

Usage

You can use this function with the eval and where commands, in the WHERE clause of the from command, and as part of evaluation expressions with other commands.

format
Description: The <format> is a character string that can include one or more format conversion specifiers. Each conversion specifier can include optional components such as flag characters, width specifications, and precision specifications. The <format> must be enclosed in quotation marks.
Syntax: "(%[flags][width][.precision]<conversion_specifier>)..."
arguments
Description: The <arguments> are optional and can include the width, precision, and the value to format. The <arguments> can be strings, numbers, or field names.
Syntax: [width][.precision][value]

To use named arguments, you must specify the <arguments> in an array, enclosing the values in square brackets. The syntax for named arguments is (format:<format>, arguments:[<value>, <value>, ...]. For example:

... printf(format:"%04.4f %-30s", values[field_one,field_two])

Supported conversion specifiers

The following table describes the supported conversion specifiers.

Conversion specifier Alias Description Examples
%a or %A Floating point number in hexadecimal format This example returns the value of pi to 3 decimal points, in hexadecimal format.

printf("%.3A",pi()) which returns 0X1.922P+1

%c Single Unicode code point This example returns the unicode code point for 65 and the first letter of the string "Foo".

printf("%c,%c",65,"Foo") which returns A,F
%d %i Signed decimal integer This example returns the positive or negative integer values, including any signs specified with those values.

printf("%d,%i,%d",-2,+4,30) which returns -2,4,30
%e or %E Floating point number, exponential format This example returns the number 5139 in exponential format with 2 decimal points.

printf("%.2e",5139) which returns 5.14e+03
%f or %F Floating point number This example returns the value of pi to 2 decimal points.

printf("%.2f",pi()) which returns 3.14

%g or %G Floating point number. This specifier uses either %e or %f depending on the range of the numbers being formatted. This example returns the value of pi to 2 decimal points (using the %f specifier) and the number 123 in exponential format with 2 decimal points (using %e specifier).

printf("%.2g,%.2g",pi(),123) which returns 3.1,1.2e+02

%o Unsigned octal number This example returns the base-8 number for 255.

printf("%o",255) which returns 377

%s %z String This example returns the concatenated string values of "foo" and "bar".

printf("%s%z", "foo", "bar") which returns foobar

%u Unsigned, or non-negative, decimal integer This example returns the integer value of the number in the argument. printf("%u,",99) which returns 99
%x or %X %p Unsigned hexadecimal number (lowercase or uppercase) This example returns the hexadecimal values that are equivalent to the numbers in the arguments. This example shows both upper and lowercase results when using this specifier.

printf("%x,%X,%p",10,10,10) which returns a,A,A

%% Percent sign This example returns the string value with a percent sign.

printf("100%%") which returns 100%

Flag characters

The following table describes the supported flag characters.

Flag characters Description Examples
single quote or apostrophe ( ' ) Adds commas as the thousands separator. printf("%'d",12345) which returns 12,345
dash or minus ( - ) Left justify. If this flag is not specified, the is right-justified. printf("%-4d",1) which returns 1   
zero ( 0 ) Zero pad This example returns the value in the argument with leading zeros such that the number has 4 digits.

printf("%04d",1) which returns 0001

plus ( + ) Always include the sign ( + or - ). If this flag is not specified, the conversion displays a sign only for negative values. printf("%+4d",1) which returns   +1
<space> Reserve space for the sign. If the first character of a signed conversion is not a sign or if a signed conversion results in no characters, a <space> is added as a prefixed to the result. If both the <space> and + flags are specified, the <space> flag is ignored. printf("% -4d",1) which returns    1
hash, number, or pound ( # ) Use an alternate form. For the %o conversion specifier, the # flag increases the precision to force the first digit of the result to be zero. For %x or %X conversion specifiers, a non-zero result has 0x (or 0X) prefixed to it. For %a, %A, %e, %E, %f, %F, %%g , and G conversion specifiers, the result always contains a radix character, even if no digits follow the radix character. Without this flag, a radix character appears in the result of these conversions only if a digit follows it. For %g and %G conversion specifiers, trailing zeros are not removed from the result as they normally are. For other conversion specifiers, the behavior is undefined. printf("%#x", 1) which returns 0x1

Specifying field width

You can use an asterisk ( * ) with the printf function to return the field width or precision from an argument.

Examples
The following example returns the positive or negative integer values, including any signs specified with those values.

printf("%*d", 5, 123) which returns 123

The following example returns the floating point number with 1 decimal point.

printf("%.*f", 1, 1.23) which returns 1.2

The following example returns the value of pi() in exponential format with 2 decimal points.

printf("%*.*e", 9, 2, pi()) which returns 3.14e+00


The field width can be expressed using a number or an argument denoted with an asterisk ( * ) character.

Field width specifier Description Examples
number The minimum number of characters to print. If the value to print is shorter than this number, the result is padded with blank spaces. The value is not truncated even if the result is larger.
* (asterisk) The width is not specified in the format string, but as an additional integer value argument preceding the argument that has to be formatted.

Specifying precision

Precision Description
%d, %i, %o, %u, %x or %X Precision specifies the minimum number of digits to be return. If the value to be return is shorter than this number, the result is padded with leading zeros. The value is not truncated even if the result is longer. A precision of 0 means that no character is returned for the value 0.
%a or %A, %e or %E, %f or %F This is the number of digits to be returned after the decimal point. The default is 6 .
%g or %G This is the maximum number of significant digits to be returned.
%s This is the maximum number of characters to be returned. By default all characters are printed until the ending null character is encountered.
Specifying the period without a precision value If the period is specified without an explicit value for precision, 0 is assumed.
Specifying an asterisk for the precision value, for example .* The precision is not specified in the format string, but as an additional integer value argument preceding the argument that has to be formatted.

Unsupported conversion specifiers

There are a few conversion specifiers from the C sprintf() function that are not supported, including:

  •  %C, however %c is supported
  •  %n
  •  %S, however %s is supported
  • %<num>$ specifier for picking which argument to use

Basic examples

This example creates a new field called new_field and creates string values based on the values in field_one and field_two. The values are formatted with 4 digits before the decimal and 4 digits after the decimal. The - specifies to left justify the string values. The 30 specifies the width of the field.

...| eval new_field=printf("%04.4f %-30s",field_one,field_two)


tonumber(<str>, <base>)

This function converts a string to a number. The base is optional. If not specified, base 10 is used.

Usage

You can use this function with the eval and where commands, in the WHERE clause of the from command, and as part of evaluation expressions with other commands.

The <str> can be a field name or a value.

The <base> is used to define the base of the number in <str>. The <base> can be 2 to 36. The default is 10, which corresponds to the decimal system.

If the tonumber function cannot parse a field value to a number, for example if the value contains a leading and trailing space, the function returns NULL. Use the trim function to remove leading or trailing spaces.

If the tonumber function cannot parse a literal string to a number, the function returns an error.

To use named arguments, you must specify the argument names before the argument values. For example: 

... tonumber(str:"0A4", base:16)

Basic examples

The following example converts the string values for the store_sales field to numbers. This example uses the default <base>.

... | eval n=tonumber(store_sales)


The following example takes the hexadecimal number and uses a <base> of 16 to return the number "164".

... | eval n=tonumber("0A4",16)


The following example trims any leading or trailing spaces from the values in the celsius field before converting it to a number.

... | eval temperature=tonumber(trim(celsius))

tostring(<value>, <format>)

This function converts a value to a string using the specified format.

If the input value is a number, it reformats it as a string. If the input value is a Boolean value, it returns the corresponding string value, "True" or "False".

Usage

You can use this function with the eval and where commands, in the WHERE clause of the from command, and as part of evaluation expressions with other commands.

When used with the eval command, the values might not sort as expected because the values are converted to ASCII. Use the fieldformat command with the tostring function to format the displayed values. The underlying values are not changed with the fieldformat command.

If <value> is a number, the second argument <format> is optional and can be "hex", "commas", or "duration".

Examples Description
tostring(<value>,"hex") Converts <value> to hexadecimal.
tostring(<value>,"commas") Formats <value> with commas. If the number includes decimals, the function rounds to nearest two decimal places.
tostring(<value>,"duration") Converts a <value> that is in seconds to the readable time format HH:MM:SS.

To use named arguments, you must specify the argument names before the argument values. For example: 

... tostringr(value:period, format:"duration")

Basic examples

The following example returns period=615 and period_time=00:10:15. The 615 seconds is converted into minutes and seconds.

... | eval period=615 | eval period_time = tostring(period, "duration")


The following example returns "True 0xF 12,345.68".

... | eval n=tostring(1==1) + " " + tostring(15, "hex") + " " + tostring(12345.6789, "commas")

See also

Functions
SPL2 eval functions Quick Reference
Overview of SPL2 eval functions
strptime
Last modified on 07 September, 2021
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This documentation applies to the following versions of Splunk® Cloud Services: current


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