from command overview
Use the SPL2
from command to retrieve data from a dataset, such as an index, metric index, lookup, view, or job.
from command is the primary command used to read data out of a dataset, such as an index, metric index, lookup, view, or job. The
from command has optional clauses to filter, aggregate, project, and order the data.
from command has a flexible syntax, which enables you to start a search with either the
FROM clause or the
SELECT clause. For example, these two searches are identical and return the exact same results:
|Start with the FROM clause||Start with the SELECT clause|
The only difference between these searches is that one starts with the FROM clause and the other search starts with the SELECT clause.
Regardless of which clause you start a search with, to use the optional clauses you must specify the clauses in a specific hierarchical order. See from command usage.
The required syntax is in bold.
- FROM <dataset> [ AS <alias>]
- [ JOIN <dataset> AS <alias> ON <join-condition>... ] ...
- [ WHERE ( <predicate-expression> [<logical-operator> <predicate-expression>] ) ... ]
- [ (GROUP BY | GROUPBY) ( <expression>[,<expression>... ] | span ( <field> ) | span ( <field>, [<int>]<timescale> ) | <field> span=( [<int>]<timescale> ) ]
- [ (SELECT | SELECT DISTINCT) <expression> [, <expression>] ... ]
- [ HAVING <expression> ]
- [ (ORDER BY | ORDERBY) <expression>[,<expression>... ] [ASC | DESC] ]
- [ LIMIT <integer> ]
- [ OFFSET <integer> ]
Uppercase and lowercase clause names
The clause names are shown in uppercase in the syntax for readability. You can specify the clause names in uppercase or lowercase. For example, you can specify
GROUP BY or
group by. However, you cannot specify the names in mixed case, such as
Using the from command clauses
The following table provides a brief explanation of what each clause is used for:
|FROM||Use the FROM clause to specify the dataset that you want to search.|
|JOIN||Use the JOIN clause to enrich your event data with data from another dataset.|
|WHERE||Use the WHERE clause to filter data. You use the WHERE clause before the data is aggregated.|
|GROUP BY||Use the GROUP BY clause to organize the search results.|
|SELECT||Use the SELECT clause to specify the fields you want returned from the search, or to aggregate the data.|
|HAVING||Use the HAVING clause to filter the results after the data is aggregated|
|ORDER BY||Use the ORDER BY clause to sort the results|
|LIMIT||Use the LIMIT clause to set a maximum for the number of results to return.|
|OFFSET||Use the OFFSET clause to return a window of records from the results by skipping rows in the result set.|
For detailed information about each clause, see from command syntax details.
How the from command works
from command is very SQL-like, but you don't have to know SQL to use it.
from command supports two different syntax hierarchies. One hierarchy starts with the
FROM clause. The other hierarchy starts with the
SELECT clause. See from command usage.
The following examples focus on the
FROM clause. To see examples that start with the
SELECT clause and examples using the other clauses, see from command examples.
from command to read data in any kind of dataset, such as a timestamped index, a metric index, a view, or a lookup.
The only required syntax is:
| FROM <dataset>
This simple search returns all of the data in the dataset. That might be a lot of data. Most of the time you will want to add a filter to your search to either narrow the results down to what you are looking for, or to exclude the data that you don't want to see.
To show you how this works, let's start with an event index called
main that contains events with HTTP status codes. You want to find all of the events with a status code of 200.
You can search the
main index using a simple search like this:
| FROM main WHERE status=200
You can use the
WHERE clause to filter data by specifying a field-value pair or specifying a time-range.
Specifying field-value pairs
When you specify a field-value pair, if the value is a <string> it must be enclosed in double quotation marks. For example, the following search looks for a specific value
linux_secure1 in the sourcetype field. The value must be enclosed in double quotation marks.
| FROM main WHERE sourcetype="linux_secure1"
Likewise, numbers that are interpreted as string values must also be enclosed in double quotation marks. For example:
| FROM main WHERE clientip="192.0.2.14"
Specifying a time range
You can use a Time Range Picker to specify a time range or you can specify a time range directly in your search syntax.
To specify a time range directly in your search, you use the
latest time modifiers in the
WHERE clause. You can specify an exact time such as
earliest="10/5/2019:20:00:00", or a relative time such as starting with the previous hour
Here's an example that specifies both a field-value pair and a beginning time range which goes back in time 1 hour.
| FROM main WHERE clientip="192.0.2.14" AND earliest=-1h
When a search doesn't specify an ending time range using
latest, the current time
now() is used.
For more information about specifying time modifiers, see Time modifiers in the SPL2 Search Manual.
You can specify that your search time range starts at the beginning of a time unit, such as the beginning of a day or hour. This is referred to as a snap-to time.
Here's an example of using a time range in a search that is going back 5 minutes, snapping to the beginning of the minute. The end of the time range is the beginning of the current minute.
FROM main WHERE earliest=-5m@m AND latest=@m
To learn more about using a snap-to time, see Specifying relative time in the SPL2 Search Manual.
There are many clauses that you can use with the
For information about the hierarchy of commands, see from command usage.
See from command examples for a range of examples using the
from command clauses.
flatten command examples
from command syntax details
This documentation applies to the following versions of Splunk® Cloud Services: current
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