Splunk® Cloud Services

SPL2 Search Reference

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Informational functions

The following list contains the functions that you can use to return information about a value.

For information about using string and numeric fields in functions, and nesting functions, see Overview of SPL2 eval functions.


cluster(<field>,<threshold>,<match>,<delims>)

This function generates a cluster label, in the form of a number, for each event based on how similar the events are to each other. The cluster label represents which cluster the event belongs to.

Usage

You can use this function with the eval and where commands, in the WHERE clause of the from command, and as part of evaluation expressions with other commands.

The cluster label is generated by using a clustering algorithm. The similarity of the events is determined by comparing the values in a specific field.

The following table defines the parameters you can use with the cluster function:

Parameter Description
field Required. The field that you want to analyze and cluster on.
threshold Optional. The threshold parameter controls the sensitivity of the clustering. Must be a float number greater than 0.0 and less than 1.0, such as threshold:0.5F. The closer the threshold is to 1.0, the more similar events must be to be considered in the same cluster.


The default threshold is 0.8F.

match Optional. The match parameter selects the method used to determine the similarity between events. There are three match methods:
  • termlist method breaks down the field into words and requires the exact same ordering of terms.
  • termset method breaks down the field into words and allows for an unordered set of terms.
  • ngramset method compares sets of trigram (3-character substrings). Using ngramset results in significantly slower processing on large field values and is most useful for short non-textual fields, like the punct field.

The default method is termlist.

delims Optional. The delims parameter uses a delimiter to tokenize the content of field,

such as a comma ( , ) or a pipe ( | ).

There is no default delimiter. The field value is processed as a single string.

You can use this function with the eval and where commands, in the WHERE and SELECT clauses of the from command, and as part of evaluation expressions with other commands.

Examples

The following example clusters the events by the values in the _raw field. The events are then sorted by the cluster number.

... | eval cluster_number = cluster(_raw) | sort - cluster_number


This example is similar to the previous example, but uses the cluster function in the SELECT clause of the from command:

from main select _raw, cluster(_raw) orderby cluster_number


The following example clusters the events by the values in the _raw field using a threshold of 0.9F . The events are then sorted by the cluster_label field.

... | eval cluster_label = cluster(_raw, cluster_threshold:0.9F) | sort cluster_label

Consider this set of events:

_time _raw
2021-07-21T00:57:58.000+00:00 {"JSESSIONID":"SD5SL6FF7ADFF53001","_raw":"12.130.60.5 - - [20/Jul/2021:17:57:58] \"POST /cart/error.do?msg=CreditDoesNotMatch&JSESSIONID=SD5SL6FF7ADFF53001 HTTP 1.1\" 200 ... }
2021-07-21T00:57:58.000+00:00 {"JSESSIONID":"SD10SL4FF2ADFF48107","_raw":"125.17.14.100 - - [20/Jul/2021:00:58:04] \"POST /cart/error.do?msg=CanNotGetCart&JSESSIONID=SD10SL4FF2ADFF48107 HTTP 1.1\" 200 ... }
2021-07-21T00:57:58.000+00:00 {"JSESSIONID":"SD6SL8FF9ADFF43007","_raw":"107.3.146.207 - - [19/Jul/2021:06:37:51] \"POST /cart/error.do?msg=CanNotGetCart&JSESSIONID=SD6SL8FF9ADFF43007 HTTP 1.1\" 200 ... }
2021-07-21T00:57:58.000+00:00 {"JSESSIONID":"SD6SL8FF9ADFF43007","_raw":"107.3.146.207 - - [18/Jul/2021:06:37:48] \"POST /cart/error.do?msg=CanNotGetCart&JSESSIONID=SD6SL8FF9ADFF43007 HTTP 1.1\" 200 ... }
2021-07-21T00:57:58.000+00:00 {"JSESSIONID":"SD1SL8FF9ADFF40501","_raw":"124.160.192.241 - - [18/Jul/2021:22:26:31] \"POST /cart/error.do?msg=CreditNotAccepted&JSESSIONID=SD1SL8FF9ADFF40501 HTTP 1.1\" 200 ... }

The results look like this:

_time _raw cluster_label
2021-07-21T00:57:58.000+00:00 {"JSESSIONID":"SD5SL6FF7ADFF53001","_raw":"12.130.60.5 - - [20/Jul/2021:17:57:58] \"POST /cart/error.do?msg=CreditDoesNotMatch&JSESSIONID=SD5SL6FF7ADFF53001 HTTP 1.1\" 200 ... } 1
2021-07-21T00:57:58.000+00:00 {"JSESSIONID":"SD10SL4FF2ADFF48107","_raw":"125.17.14.100 - - [20/Jul/2021:00:58:04] \"POST /cart/error.do?msg=CanNotGetCart&JSESSIONID=SD10SL4FF2ADFF48107 HTTP 1.1\" 200 ... } 1
2021-07-21T00:57:58.000+00:00 {"JSESSIONID":"SD6SL8FF9ADFF43007","_raw":"107.3.146.207 - - [19/Jul/2021:06:37:51] \"POST /cart/error.do?msg=CanNotGetCart&JSESSIONID=SD6SL8FF9ADFF43007 HTTP 1.1\" 200 ... } 2
2021-07-21T00:57:58.000+00:00 {"JSESSIONID":"SD6SL8FF9ADFF43007","_raw":"107.3.146.207 - - [18/Jul/2021:06:37:48] \"POST /cart/error.do?msg=CanNotGetCart&JSESSIONID=SD6SL8FF9ADFF43007 HTTP 1.1\" 200 ... } 3
2021-07-21T00:57:58.000+00:00 {"JSESSIONID":"SD1SL8FF9ADFF40501","_raw":"124.160.192.241 - - [18/Jul/2021:22:26:31] \"POST /cart/error.do?msg=CreditNotAccepted&JSESSIONID=SD1SL8FF9ADFF40501 HTTP 1.1\" 200 ... } 3


getfields(<filter>)

Returns a JSON array populated with JSON objects, where each object represents a field and its value.

The array that's returned is structured like this [{name:<field_name>, value: <field_value>}].

Usage

You can use this function with the eval and where commands, in the WHERE clause of the from command, and as part of evaluation expressions with other commands.

The filter parameter is optional. When specified, the filter populates the array with only the field names that match the filter. The filter can contain up to 3 wildcards. When wildcards are specified, a segment array is added to the JSON object the represent the field name segments which match each wildcard. See Examples.

Examples

The following example shows the results when the getfields function is used on a set of columns. Consider this set of events:

code error_type
200
401 auth

The following search uses the getfields function without a filter:

... | eval rowData = getfields()

The results look like this:

code error_type rowData
200 [{"name":"code","value":200}]
401 auth [{"name":"code","value":401},{"name":"error_type","value":"auth"}]


The following example shows how to use a filter with the getfields function. Consider this set of events which contain information about the status of various servers:

_time status_www1_east1 status_www1_south1 status_www2_west1
7 Nov 2022 9:00 PM 200 404 200
7 Nov 2022 8:00 PM 404 200 200

The field names consist of three parts:

  • The word status
  • The name of the server, such as www1
  • The location of the server, such as east1

You can use a filter with wildcards to return information only from these fields and collect the statuses of all of your servers. For example:

... | eval serverData = getfields('status_*_*')

The results look like this:

_time serverData status_www1_east1 status_www1_south1 status_www2_west1
7 Nov 2022 9:00 PM [] NULL NULL NULL
[{"name":"status_www1_east1","value":200,"segments":["www1","east1"]}] 200 NULL NULL
[{"name":"status_www1_east1","value":404,"segments":["www1","south1"]}] NULL 404 NULL
[{"name":"status_www1_east1","value":200,"segments":["www2","west1"]}] NULL NULL 200
7 Nov 2022 8:00 PM [] NULL NULL NULL
[{"name":"status_www1_east1","value":404,"segments":["www1","east1"]}] 404 NULL NULL
[{"name":"status_www1_east1","value":200,"segments":["www1","south1"]}] NULL 200 NULL
[{"name":"status_www1_east1","value":200,"segments":["www2","west1"]}] NULL NULL 200

isbool(<value>)

This function returns TRUE if the value is Boolean.

Usage

Use this function with other functions that return Boolean data types, such as cidrmatch and mvfind.

This function cannot be used to determine if field values are "true" or "false" because field values are either string or number data types. Instead, use syntax such as <fieldname>=true OR <fieldname>=false to determine field values.

You can use this function with the eval and where commands, in the WHERE clause of the from command, and as part of evaluation expressions with other commands.

Example

The following example shows how to uses the where command to determine if the values in the encrypted field are Boolean values.

... | where isbool(encrypted)

isint(<value>)

This function returns TRUE if the value is an integer.

Usage

You can use this function with the eval and where commands, in the WHERE clause of the from command, and as part of evaluation expressions with other commands.

Examples

The following example uses the isint function with the if function. A field, "n", is added to each result with a value of "int" or "not int", depending on the result of the isint function. If the value of "field" is a number, the isint function returns TRUE and the value adds the value "int" to the "n" field.

... | eval n=if(isint(field),"int", "not int")

The following example shows how to use the isint function with the where command.

... | where isint(field)


isnotnull(<value>)

This function returns TRUE if the value is not NULL.

Usage

This function is useful for checking for whether or not a field contains a value.

You can use this function with the eval and where commands, in the WHERE clause of the from command, and as part of evaluation expressions with other commands.

Examples

The following example uses the isnotnull function with the if function. A field, "n", is added to each result with a value of "yes" or "no", depending on the result of the isnotnull function. If the value of "field" is a number, the isnotnull function returns TRUE and the value adds the value "yes" to the "n" field.

... | eval n=if(isnotnull(field),"yes","no")


The following example shows how to use the isnotnull function with the where command.

... | where isnotnull(field)


isnull(<value>)

This function returns TRUE if the value is NULL.

Usage

You can use this function with the eval and where commands, in the WHERE clause of the from command, and as part of evaluation expressions with other commands.

Examples

The following example uses the isnull function with the if function. A field, "n", is added to each result with a value of "yes" or "no", depending on the result of the isnull function. If there is no value for "field" in a result, the isnull function returns TRUE and adds the value "yes" to the "n" field.

... | eval n=if(isnull(field),"yes","no")


The following example shows how to use the isnull function with the where command.

... | where isnull(field)

isnum(<value>)

This function returns TRUE if the value is a number.

Usage

You can use this function with the eval and where commands, in the WHERE clause of the from command, and as part of evaluation expressions with other commands.

Examples

The following example uses the isnum function with the if function. A field, "n", is added to each result with a value of "yes" or "no", depending on the result of the isnum function. If the value of "field" is a number, the isnum function returns TRUE and the value adds the value "yes" to the "n" field.

... | eval n=if(isnum(field),"yes","no")


The following example shows how to use the isnum function with the where command.

... | where isnum(field)


isstr(<value>)

This function returns TRUE if the value is a string.

Usage

You can use this function with the eval and where commands, in the WHERE clause of the from command, and as part of evaluation expressions with other commands.

Examples

The following example uses the isstr function with the if function. A field, "n", is added to each result with a value of "yes" or "no", depending on the result of the isstr function. If the value of "field" is a string, the isstr function returns TRUE and the value adds the value "yes" to the "n" field.

... | eval n=if(isstr(field),"yes","no")


The following example shows how to use the isstr function with the where command.

... | where isstr(field)


typeof(<value>)

This function returns the data type of the value.

Usage

You can use this function with the eval and where commands, in the WHERE clause of the from command, and as part of evaluation expressions with other commands.

Examples

The following example takes one argument and returns a string representation of its type. This example returns "NumberStringBoolInvalid"

... | eval n=typeof(12) + typeof("string") + typeof(1==2) + typeof(badfield)


The following example creates a single result using an empty dataset literal.

from [{ }]

For example:

_time
2019-08-23T10:03:01.000-0700

To determine the data type of the _time field, use the eval command with the typeof function. For example:

| from [{ }] | eval t=typeof(_time)

The results are:

_time t
2019-08-23T10:03:01.000-0700 Number

See also

Function information
SPL2 eval functions Quick Reference
Overview of SPL2 eval functions
Naming function arguments in the SPL2 Search Manual
Related information
Dataset literals in the SPL2 Search Manual
Last modified on 08 November, 2022
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This documentation applies to the following versions of Splunk® Cloud Services: current


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